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Table 1 Promotive motivation theory scale for adolescent smoking

From: Protection motivation theory and cigarette smoking among vocational high school students in China: a cusp catastrophe modeling analysis

Threat appraisal
 Perceived Threat Severity
1 The earlier a person starts smoking, the greater the harm
2 More smokers get sickness than nonsmokers
3 Smokers died earlier than nonsmokers
Vulnerability
4 I would become addicted if I smoke
5 I would get sick if I smoke
6 If I smoke, I may die earlier
 Perceived Rewards Extrinsic Rewards
7 Smokers look cool and fashionable
8 Smoking is good for social networking
9 The life of a smoker is happier than a nonsmoker
Intrinsic Rewards
10 Smoking makes people feel comfortable
11 Smoking helps people concentrate
12 Smoking enhances brainwork
Copping appraisal
 Perceived Efficacy Response Efficacy
13 People will feel good by not smoking
14 People will be less likely to get disease if they do not smoke
15 Quitting smoking is good for disease recovery
Self-Efficacy
16 No one could persuade me if I do not want to smoke
17 Even if all who are around me smoke, that does not mean I must smoke
18 I can refuse even if a relative or friend asks me to smoke
 Perceived Cost Response Cost
19 A person may be isolated if he or she does not smoke
20 Refusing a cigarette offer is very impolite
21 One will miss the enjoyment if he or she does not smoke