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Table 1 Summary of Findings: Community-based treatment compared with traditional hospitalization for MDR-TB and XDR-TB patients

From: Community-based management versus traditional hospitalization in treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, Year, Country of Study, Study period Arm, N, Percent Female, Age Intervention Components Intervention setting, Intervention provider, Length of DOTS Drug model, number of drugs, treatment duration (intensive, continuation phase), Proportion previously treated
Brust JC 2012 [12]
Prospective cohort
South Africa
2008–2010
Community-based intervention N = 80 Female: 63 %
Age: 34 HIV+: 83 %
Extensive training of PHC staff, Routine home visits, Clinician support, DOTS supervised by healthcare worker, DOTS supervised by family treatment supporter, DOTS supervised by a healthcare worker, Education of patients and family treatment supporter, Adherence support and adverse event monitoring, Mobile multidisciplinary teams of home care providers & HIV treatment Decentralized, outpatient
Friends/relatives staying close by, Home care support, DOTS nurse, Community Health Extension Worker (CHEW)
Throughout therapy
Standardized 6, NR 6, 24 NR
Brust JC 2010 [39]
Retrospective cohort
South Africa
2000–2003
Traditional hospitalization N = 1209 Female: 39 %
Age: 33 HIV+: 52 %
Hospitalization Hospital
No DOTS provider
Partial Observation
Standardized
5,4 4-6, 18 NR
Cox H 2007 [41]
Retrospective cohort
Uzbekistan
2003–2005
Traditional Hospitalization
N = 87
Female: 39.1 %
Age: 31
HIV+: NR
Hospitalization Hospital
Trained facility based healthcare worker
NR
Individualized
6, NR 6,18 100 %
Cox H 2014 [30]
Retrospective cohort
South Africa
2005–2011
Community-based intervention N = 1208 Female: 50 %
Age: 33 HIV+: 70 %
Extensive training of primary health care center (PHC) staff, Routine home visits, Clinician support, Social assistance and support groups, DOTSa supervised by healthcare worker PHC
Trained facility based healthcare worker
Throughout therapy
Standardized 5, NR b
6, 18 NR
Hirpa S 2013 [42]
Case control study
Ethiopia
2011–2012
Traditional Hospitalization
N = 134
Female: 39.5 %
Age: 25.1
HIV+: 13.4 %
Clinician support
Healthcare workers
Hospital
Trained facility based healthcare worker
Partial observation
Standardized
5, NR
NR, NR
NR, NR
Joseph P 2011 [33]
Prospective cohort
India
2006–2007
Community-based intervention N = 38 Female: 34.2 %
Age: NR HIV+: NR
Extensive training of PHC center staff, Routine home visits, education of patients and family treatment supporter, Supply of drugs to local health center NR
Trained facility based healthcare worker, Friends/relatives staying close by, Private medical practitioners
Throughout therapy
Standardized
6,4 6–9, 18 NR
Keshavjee S 2008 [38]
Retrospective cohort
Russia
2000–2004
Traditional Hospitalization
N = 608 Female: NR
Age: 33.9 HIV+: NR
Hospitalization and DOTS supervised by healthcare worker Hospital
DOTS supervised by healthcare worker
Partial Observation
Individualized 5, 5
6–9, 18 100 %
Liu CH 2011 [37]
Retrospective cohort
China
1996–2009
Traditional Hospitalization
N = 576 Female: 33.9 %
Age: 41 HIV+: NR
Clinician support Hospital
NR
NR
Individualized 5, NR c
18, 18 68.7 %
Vaghela JF 2015 [14]
Prospective cohort
India
2009–2012
Community-based intervention N = 101 Female: 40.6 %
Age: 33 HIV+: NR
Extensive training of primary health care center staff, Physical and mental support Counseling, Routine home visits, Adherence support and adverse event monitoring, Mobile multidisciplinary teams of home care providers, Vocational rehabilitation, Hygiene & Nutrition counseling, Nursing care, Financial rehabilitation PHC, Patient home
Trained facility based healthcare worker, Home care support
Throughout therapy
NR NR, NR 6, 24–27 NR
Oyieng’o D 2012 [11]
Retrospective cohort
Kenya
2008–2010
Community-based intervention N = 14 Female: 50 %
Age: NR HIV+: 50 %
Extensive training of PHC staff, Routine home visits, Clinician support, DOTS supervised by family treatment supporter, DOTS supervised by healthcare worker, Education of patients and family treatment supporter, Adherence support and adverse event monitoring, Mobile multidisciplinary teams of home care providers Decentralized, Local Health Centre
Friends/relatives staying close by, Home care support, DOTS nurse, CHEW
Throughout therapy
Standardized
5,4 6, 18 NR
Singla R 2009 [34]
Retrospective cohort
India
2002–2006
Community-based intervention N = 126 Female: 42 %
Age: 26 HIV+: NR
DOTS supervised by family treatment supporter, Daily supervised treatment in peripheral health centers, decentralized care Decentralized
Friends and family staying close by
Throughout therapy
Standardized
5,3 6–9, 18 NR
Shin SS 2007 [40]
Retrospective cohort
Russia
2000–2002
Traditional Hospitalization
N = 244 Female: 9.2 %
Age: 31 HIV+: NR
Hospitalization and trained facility based healthcare worker Trained facility based healthcare worker
Throughout therapy
Individualized NR, NR
18.5, 18 100 %
Tupasi TE 2006 [31]
Retrospective cohort
Philippines
1999–2002
Community-based intervention N = 117 Female: 26 %
Age: 38 HIV+: NR
DOTS supervised by healthcare worker, Daily supervised treatment in peripheral health centers, Home based DOTS PHC, Patient home
Trained facility based healthcare worker
Partial Observation
Individualized
NR, NR 6, 18 18.8 %
Thomas A 2007 [32]
Prospective cohort
India
1999–2003
Community-based intervention N = 66 Female: 30.3 %
Age: 38 HIV+: NR
Routine home visits, Clinician support, DOTS supervised by healthcare worker, Financial rehabilitation PHC, Patient home
Trained facility based healthcare worker, Village health worker, private provider
Partial Observation
Individualized
5,NR 6–9, 12 100 %
Van Deun A 2010 [36]
Prospective cohort
Bangladesh
1997–2007
Traditional hospitalization N = 427 Female: 25.5 %
Age: 31.7 HIV+: NR
Clinician support Hospital
Trained facility based healthcare worker
NR
Standardized
NR, NR NR, NR 100 %
Wei X 2015 [35]
Retrospective cohort
Ethiopia
2990–2102
Community- based intervention
N: 110
Female: 26.4 %
HIV+: Yes (NR)
Routine home visits, DOTS supervised by healthcare worker and family PHC, Patient home
Village health worker, family
Throughout therapy
Standardized
5, NR 6, 18 NR
  1. aDOTS, Directly observed therapy short course
  2. b NR Not reported
  3. c NR Not reported