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Table 1 Barriers to Global Action on AMR by Policy Stage

From: Developing an approach to assessing the political feasibility of global collective action and an international agreement on antimicrobial resistance

Policy Stage Barrier Associated Stakeholders
Agenda Setting Lack of Data National Governments
Supranational Organizations
Civil Society Organizations
Agricultural Industry
Pharmaceutical Industry
Achieving Public Engagement National Governments
Civil Society Organizations
Competing Health Priorities National Governments
Pharmaceutical Industry
Agreement Formulation Unknown Impact of AMR Control Policies National Governments
Supranational Organizations
Civil Society Organizations
Agricultural Industry
Pharmaceutical Industry
Reconciling Mandates, Business Models, and Perspectives of Key Stakeholders National Governments
Supranational Organizations
Cost Distribution & Funding National Governments
Supranational Organizations
Pharmaceutical Industry
Agreement Legitimation Lack of Enforcement of International Law National Governments
Supranational Organizations
Civil Society Organizations
Agricultural Industry
Pharmaceutical Industry
Enacting Binding Rules on a Global Scale National Governments
Supranational Organizations
Fragmentation of Global Health Governance and Initiatives Supranational Organizations
Agreement Implementation Unregulated Distribution of Antimicrobials (legal and counterfeit) National Governments
Civil Society Organizations
Pharmaceutical Industry
Lack of Capacity and Infrastructure National Governments
Civil Society Organizations
Agricultural Industry
Pharmaceutical Industry
Reconciling Domestic Political Powers National Governments
Coordinating Actors National Governments
Supranational Organizations