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Table 1 Methods of identifying the poor

From: Identifying the poor for premium exemption: a critical step towards universal health coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa

Method Ideal condition to use in sub-Saharan Africa Drawback Error of exclusiona
Means testing (MT) None Very expensive No error of exclusion
Proximal means testing (PMT) Low poverty incidence urban areas Expensive, measures relative poverty Possibility of significant error of exclusion
Geographic targeting (GT) High poverty incidence areas (both urban and rural) GT could lead to the non-poor who live in poor neighborhoods being exempted from premium No error of exclusion
Participatory wealth ranking (PWR) Low poverty incidence rural communities Measures relative poverty, cannot be used where community ties are weak Possibility of significant error of exclusion
  1. aError of exclusion - not identifying the poor as poor