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Table 3 Government Transfer Payments, Public Services and Poverty Status

From: Escaping from poverty trap: a choice between government transfer payments and public services

Variables Model I: Poverty = poverty_1 Model II: Poverty = poverty_25%
H_income GTP PTP Poverty H_income GTP PTP Poverty
Panel A
H_ income 0.1011c (17.36) 0.0267c (3.06) −0.004c (−12.84) 0.1013c (17.39) 0.0223c (2.56) −0.0012c (−3.75)
GTP 0.771c (8.24) 0.013c (5.03) 0.774c (8.17) 0.0085c (3.68)
PTP −0.033c (−12.77) −0.026c (−10.93)
Job 1996.32c (15.32) −497.10c (−16.71) 212.35c (4.77) −0.0653c (−4.21) 1989.56c (15.27) −497.46c (−16.72) 225.62c (5.06) −0.016 (−1.13)
Gender 72.21 (0.6) −103.35c (−3.68) −36.04 (−1.20) 0.0172 (1.63) 76.055 (0.63) −103.50c (−3.68) −36.9 (−1.23) 0.00014 (0.01)
Minority 206.68 (0.78) −6.14 (−0.10) −46.84 (−0.73) 0.00471 (0.21) 205.31 (0.77) −4.6096 (−0.07) −48.34 (−0.76) 0.0065 (0.32)
Urban 510.35c (4.59) −265.44c (−8.42) 136.15c (3.99) −0.0347c (−2.81) 524.87c (4.72) −264.85c (−8.43) 131.35c (3.83) −0.0106 (−0.94)
Political −1368.42c (−5.74) 86.214 (1.59) 89.09 (1.56) −0.0870c (−4.18) −1361.34c (−5.71) 86.1386 (1.59) 84.22 (1.47) −0.0472b (−2.49)
Migrant −147.84 (−0.50) 63.961 (0.93) 238.21c (3.36) 0.0301 (1.16) −147.02 (−0.50) 64.102 (0.93) 237.72c (3.35) 0.0266 (1.13)
Age 95.84c (4.81) −15.55c (−3.33) 5.2356 (1.08) −0.002 (−1.19) 95.01c (4.77) −15.61c (−3.34) 5.845 (1.20) −0.0048c (−3.16)
Age2 −0.7232c (−3.82) 0.1366c (3.07) −0.0564 (−1.22) 0.000016 (1.00) −0.7203c (−3.80) 0.1372c (3.09) −0.0598 (−1.29) 0.00005c (3.15)
Secondjob 1124.22c (8.30) −141.04c (−4.42) −47.939 (−1.41) −0.0759c (−6.22) 1119.93c (8.27) −141.22c (−4.42) −39.02 (−1.15) −0.1011c (−9.11)
Private 508.46c (2.87)   5.8603 (0.17)   517.74c (2.93)   42.542 (1.28)  
Agriculture −2008.66c (−13.45)   202.81c (5.67)   −1952.17c (−13.10)   144.01c (4.12)  
State −410.03c (−3.35)   419.54c (15.31)   −431.75c (−3.53)   435.43c (16.01)  
Secondedu 1261.13c (12.59)     1189.21c (11.38)    
Highedu 4099.95c (17.96)     4159.75c (18.15)    
Insurance 1023.84c (10.13)    −0.0313c (−3.83) 1038.62c (10.27)    −0.0560c (−7.70)
Water 266.70c (2.72)    −0.0298c (−3.43) 266.22b (2.71)    −0.0324c (−4.14)
Toilet 1256.73c (11.68)    −0.0214b (−2.14) 1262.19c (11.71)    −0.0256c (−2.76)
Hygiene 327.59c (3.06)    −0.0381c (−4.59) 330.90c (3.09)    −0.0476c (−6.46)
Fiveg   59.07 (0.33)     −17.72 (−0.10)   
Single   −103.75c (−3.75)     −105.19c (−3.85)   
Car    243.79c (4.23)     185.48c (3.16)  
Air conditioner    155.28c (2.74)     167.42c (2.90)  
_cons −2440.31c (−3.94) 544.77c (3.83) 35.736 (0.23) 1.0960c (20.72) −2408.40c (−3.88) 546.61c (3.84) 18.167 (0.12) 0.7383c (15.37)
Year Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
County Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Chi2() 7592.34c 3541.3c 3335.4c 2259.52c 7580.97c 3543.9c 3315.7c 1495.09c
obs 30628 30628 30628 30628 30628 30628 30628 30628
Panel B Mechanisms
Crowd-out Effect −0.3875c (−4.70) −0.8739c (−14.19)
Inductive Effect −2.705c (−43.39) −4.244c (−27.61)
  1. Notes: To identify the mechanism, we introduce the interactive term between the poverty status and GTPs into PTP determination specification. And we also introduce he interactive term between the poverty status and GTPs into household-income determination specification. We only demonstrate results of the interactive term in Panel B. Other variables are not reported. Z values are reported in parentheses. aSignificantly at 10% level. bSignificantly at 5% level. cSignificantly at 1% level