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Table 4 Government Transfer Payments, Public Services and Poverty Status Conversion

From: Escaping from poverty trap: a choice between government transfer payments and public services

Variable Poverty = poverty_1 Poverty = poverty_25%
Change in Poverty No Change in Poverty Change in Poverty No Change in Poverty
H_income Poverty H_income Poverty H_income Poverty H_income Poverty
Panel A
H_income   −0.008c (−6.11)   −0.004c (−12.35)   −0.006b (−2.54)   −8.34e-04c (−2.89)
GTP   0.0215c (5.08)   0.0061b (1.97)   0.012a (1.90)   0.010c (4.58)
PTP   −0.012c (−2.40)   −0.035c (−13.23)   −0.016b (−2.14)   −0.023c (−10.34)
Insurance 264.78 (1.47) −0.0022 (−1.14) 1213.09c (10.22) −0.0483c (−5.21) 103.46 (0.74) −0.0316b (−1.98) 1144.37c (9.68) −0.0447c (−6.15)
Water 192.79 (1.22) −0.0136 (−0.94) 255.69b (2.20) −0.0429c (−4.20) 280.14b (2.22) −0.0186b (−2.02) 281.97b (2.39) −0.0439c (−5.48)
Toilet 544.33c (3.05) −0.0148a (−1.90) 1529.19c (12.14) −0.0214a (−1.78) 310.41b (2.15) −0.0017 (−1.09) 1282.63c (10.27) −0.0319c (−3.42)
Hygiene 61.44 (1.35) −0.0108 (1.63) 392.50c (3.13) −0.0435c (−4.62) 36.95 (1.28) −0.0054 (−1.31) 384.27c (2.98) −0.0588c (−7.92)
Other controls Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Year Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
County Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Chi2() 6869.8c 7499.35c 5927.02c 2674.41c 735.65c 7119.2c 7128.01c 1340.81c
obs 8468 8468 22160 22160 7121 7121 23507 23507
Panel B Mechanisms
Crowd-out Effect −0.1461 (−0.67) −0.5163c (−4.76) 0.0129 (0.04) −1.0567c (−15.63)
Inductive Effect −2.4895c (−19.28) −2.7305c (−38.35) −2.6975c (−12.61) −5.1667c (−24.18)
  1. Note: We only report the results for household-income determination specification and the poverty-status determination specification in Table 4. aSignificantly at 10% level.bSignificantly at 5% level.cSignificantly at 1% level