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Table 5 Heterogeneity between urban and rural households (Poverty = poverty_1)

From: Escaping from poverty trap: a choice between government transfer payments and public services

Variable (1)Urban (2) Urban Natives (3) Rural (4) Rural Natives
H_income Poverty H_income Poverty H_income Poverty H_income Poverty
Panel A
H_income   −0.004c (−8.91)   −0.0039c (−8.69)   −0.0051c (−10.66)   −0.005c (−10.68)
GTP   −2.27E-05 (−0.01)   1.20 e-04 (0.07)   0.035c (5.32)   0.038c (5.64)
PTP   −0.020c (−6.16)   −0.020c (−6.20)   −0.046c (−10.00)   −0.046c (−9.89)
Insurance 1568.53c (9.1) −0.042c (−3.24) 1581.67c (8.87) −0.044c (−3.37) 914.01c (6.94) −0.024b (−2.06) 907.38c (6.89) −0.026b (−2.17)
Water 107.32 (1.42) −0.0091 (−0.55) 135.54 (0.52) −0.0107 (−0.64) 572.09c (5.46) −0.0145 (−1.34) 584.03c (5.57) −0.0142 (−1.30)
Toilet 1102.48c (6.43) −0.0398c (−3.04) 1151.58c (6.48) −0.0437c (−3.29) 1271.71c (9.5) −0.0134 (−1.04) 1215.51b (9.08) −0.0178 (−1.38)
Hygiene 443.00a (1.7) −0.033a (−1.90) 439.46a (1.64) −0.036b (−2.06) 439.37c (3.65) −0.027b (−2.52) 439.51c (3.66) −0.025b (−2.38)
Controls Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Year Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
County Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Chi2() 3871.2c 1333.4c 3662.9c 1223.1c 11042.7c 18934.7c 10968.6c 18460.5c
obs 9805 9805 9367 9367 20823 20823 20605 20605
Panel B Mechanisms
Crowd-out Effect −0.3934c (−5.37) −0.3969c (−5.54) −0.6289c (−4.09) −0.6094c (−3.96)
Inductive Effect −2.1650c (−26.41) −2.1657c (−26.07) −3.4267c (−38.03) −3.4167c (−37.99)
  1. Note: aSignificantly at 10% level. bSignificantly at 5% level. cSignificantly at 1% level