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Table 6 The Effects of GTP and Public Services on the Absolute Poverty

From: Escaping from poverty trap: a choice between government transfer payments and public services

Variable Poverty = poverty_1 Poverty = poverty_25%
Transfer/Subsidy as main income Transfer as main income Transfer/Subsidy as main income Transfer as main income
H_income Poverty H_income Poverty H_income Poverty H_income Poverty
Panel A
H_income   −0.00343a (−1.81)   −0.00123a (−1.86)   −0.0037a (−1.68)   −3.14E-04 (−1.19)
GTP   −0.0011 (−0.83)   −0.00184 (−1.48)   0.0029b (2.00)   −6.26E-04 (−0.42)
PTP   −0.010c (−4.91)   −0.0095c (−5.48)   −0.008c (−3.40)   −0.006c (−2.79)
Insurance 772.79c (6.76) −0.01296 (−0.64) 811.30c (6.28) −0.0322 (−1.60) 785.32c (6.86) −0.0179 (−0.77) 809.33c (6.27) −0.0368 (−1.51)
Water −17.57 (−0.15) −0.0350b (−1.98) 54.0507 (0.41) −0.00574 (−0.31) −13.0575 (−0.11) −0.040a (−1.94) 56.0181 (0.42) −0.0242 (−1.08)
Toilet 516.59c (4.59) −0.0345a (−1.69) 608.89c (4.77) −0.03536a (−1.65) 520.84c (4.62) −0.0201 (−0.90) 612.05c (4.80) −0.0229 (−0.90)
Hygiene 28.3617 (1.22) −0.0396b (−2.03) −12.179 (−0.09) −0.0458b (−2.33) 28.4244 (1.22) −0.074c (−3.24) −12.998 (−0.09) −0.098c (−4.09)
Controls Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Year Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
County Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Chi2() 1178.3c 837.60c 1186.22c 879.03c 1177.3c 832.85c 1189.7c 764.90c
obs 3693 3693 3069 3069 3693 3693 3069 3069
Panel B Mechanisms
Crowd-out Effect −0.0268 (−0.59) 0.0421 (1.05) 0.5774c (2.92) 0.4736c (2.7)
Inductive Effect −0.3617c (−12.32) −0.3739c (−11.74) −0.9695c (−14.73) −0.9962c (−14.31)
  1. Note: aSignificantly at 10% level.bSignificantly at 5% level.cSignificantly at 1% level