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Table 3 Definitions of the five policymaking stages

From: Health financing policies in Sub-Saharan Africa: government ownership or donors’ influence? A scoping review of policymaking processes

Policymaking stage Definition Matching indicator of government ownership
Emergence The moment where a predictable or unpredictable “policy window” is seized by decision makers for initiating a strategy aiming at addressing an emerging and sometimes burning issue [62]. Some authors refer to it as the stage of “agenda-setting”. - Political will and leadership demonstrated at the highest level of government
Formulation The stage where the content of the policy is defined - Political will and leadership demonstrated at the highest level of government - Effective engagement at technical and operational levels of government - Capacity to act and coordinate actors within public agencies
Funding The step where financial provisions are made available to the implementing structure in charge of the policy implementation. - Effective engagement at technical and operational levels of government - Mobilization of national resources for contributing to finance the policy
Implementation Ability of the State to lead and coordinate the operationalization of the policy. - Effective engagement at technical and operational levels of government - Capacity to act and coordinate actors within public agencies - Mobilization of national resources for contributing to finance the policy
Evaluation Appreciating policy processes and outcomes [63]. - Effective engagement at technical and operational levels of government - Capacity to act and coordinate actors within public agencies