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Table 1 Relative risk, exposure prevalence for PAF, PIF and cases of neonatal and under-five mortality due to HAP in the four South Asian countries

From: Attributable risk and potential impact of interventions to reduce household air pollution associated with under-five mortality in South Asia

  Country Exposurea Exposure (%) in cases (n/Total cases)b Exposure (%) in controls (n/Total controls)c Relative risk (95% CI)d Exposure Prevalence (95% CI)e Estimated Prevalence (scenario 1) (95% CI)f Estimated Prevalence (scenario 2) (95% CI)g
Neonatal mortality Bangladesh No HAP from cooking fuel 63/772 2773/25304 1.00 11.0 (10.6–11.4) 30.6 (30.0–31.1) 67.1 (66.5–67.6)
HAP from cooking fuel 709/772 22,531/25304 1.29 (0.94–1.78) 89.0 (88.7–89.4) 69.5 (68.9–70.0) 33.0 (32.4–33.5)
India No HAP from cooking fuel 565/6082 26,783/160300 1.00 16.7 (16.5–16.9) 35.0 (34.8–35.3) 69.2 (69.0–69.4)
HAP from cooking fuel 5517/6082 133,517/160300 1.23 (1.09–1.39) 83.3 (83.1–83.5) 65.0 (64.7–65.2) 30.8 (30.6–31.0)
Nepal No HAP from cooking fuel 15/572 1303/17208 1.00 7.6 (7.2–8.0) 27.9 (27.2–28.6) 65.8 (65.1–66.5)
HAP from cooking fuel 557/572 15,905/17208 2.67 (1.47–4.82) 92.4 (92.0–92.8) 71.1 (71.4–72.8) 34.2 (33.5–43.9)
Pakistan No HAP from cooking fuel 136/503 3909/11004 1.00 35.5 (34.6–36.4) 49.7 (48.8–50.7) 76.1 (75.3–76.9)
HAP from cooking fuel 367/503 7095/11004 1.08 (0.77–1.54) 64.5 (63.6–65.4) 50.3 (49.4–51.2) 23.9 (23.1–24.7)
Totalh   7929 213,816 1.32 (1.05–1.67) 83.8 (75.2–90.9)   
Under-five mortality Bangladesh No HAP from cooking fuel 107/1211 2729/24865 1.00 11.0 (10.6–11.4) 30.6 (30.0–31.1) 67.1 (66.5–67.7)
HAP from cooking fuel 1104/1211 22,136/24865 1.06 (0.82–1.37) 89.0 (88.6–89.4) 69.4 (68.9–70.0) 32.9 (32.4–33.5)
India No HAP from cooking fuel 850/11311 26,498/155071 1.00 17.1 (16.9–17.3) 35.3 (35.1–35.6) 69.3 (69.1–69.6)
HAP from cooking fuel 10,461/11311 128,573/155071 1.30 (1.18–1.43) 82.9 (82.7–83.1) 64.7 (64.4–64.9) 30.7 (30.5–30.9)
Nepal No HAP from cooking fuel 25/1014 1293/16766 1.00 7.7 (7.3–8.1) 28.0 (27.3–28.7) 65.9 (65.1–66.6)
HAP from cooking fuel 989/1014 15,473/16766 2.19 (1.37–3.51) 92.3 (91.9–92.7) 72.0 (71.3–72.7) 34.2 (33.4–34.9)
Pakistan No HAP from cooking fuel 197/768 3848/10739 1.00 35.8 (34.9–36.8) 50.0 (49.0–50.9) 76.3 (75.4–77.1)
HAP from cooking fuel 571/768 6891/10739 1.22 (0.92–1.64) 64.2 (63.3–65.1) 50.1 (49.1–51.0) 23.7 (22.9–24.6)
Totalh   13,290 207,441 1.30 (1.07–1.57) 83.6 (74.9–90.8)   
  1. aExposure were categorised as, “no HAP from cooking fuel” (use of clean fuels such as electricity, LPG, natural gas, biogas) and “HAP from cooking fuel” (use of polluting fuels such as kerosene, coal/lignite, charcoal, wood, straw/shrubs/grass, agricultural crop and animal dung), bnumber of ‘cases’ exposed/unexposed in each category, cnumber of ‘controls’ exposed/unexposed in each category, dRelative risk adjusted for selected potential confounders, PAF Population attributable fraction, PIF Potential impact fraction, eexposure prevalence for PAF calculation, fexposure prevalence for PIF calculation based on scenario1: assuming 22% reduction on HAP following previous intervention [27], gexposure prevalence for PIF calculation based on scenario2: assuming 63% reduction on HAP following previous community-based intervention [28]. hTotal number of cases and controls were summed across country-specific DHS data sets, and Relative Risk and exposure prevalence were summarised across countries using random effects meta-analysis using the inverse variance method (DerSimonian-Laird)