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Table 2 PAF and PIF estimates for neonatal and under-five mortality associated with HAP in the four South Asian countries

From: Attributable risk and potential impact of interventions to reduce household air pollution associated with under-five mortality in South Asia

  Country Casesa PAF% (95% CI)b PIF% (95% CI) (scenario 1 [27])c PIF% (95% CI) (scenario 2 [28])d
Neonatal mortality Bangladesh 772 18.5 (−8.1–40.2) 4.1 (−1.7–8.9) 11.6 (−4.9–25.5)
India 6082 15.8 (6.8–24.2) 3.5 (1.4–5.9) 10.0 (4.3–15.4)
Nepal 572 56.8 (25.7–77.7) 12.5 (5.4–17.1) 32.3 (10.3–47.0)
Pakistan 503 3.5 (−19.2–25.0) 0.8 (−4.6–5.9) 2.3 (−12.5–15.7)
Joint PAF/PIF 71.4 (46.0–86.9) 19.6 (10.4–27.2) 47.4 (25.3–63.1)
Total 7929
Under-five mortality Bangladesh 1211 3.9 (−20.8–24.9) 2.1 (−3.6–6.9) 6.0 (−9.6–19.5)
India 11,311 19.8 (12.9–26.3) 4.3 (2.8–5.8) 12.5 (8.3–16.6)
Nepal 1014 49.8 (23.5–69.5) 10.9 (4.7–15.4) 27.6 (8.6–41.6)
Pakistan 768 11.4 (−6.9–29.0) 1.3 (−2.9–5.2) 3.7 (−7.0–13.8)
Joint PAF/PIF 65.7 (43.1–81.5) 17.6 (9.6–24.6) 42.7 (22.8–57.6)
Total 13,290
  1. aTotal number of neonatal and under-five mortality cases associated with use of cooking fuel, bPopulation attributable faction (PAF) estimates attributable to HAP, cPotential impact faction (PIF) estimates based on 22% reduction on HAP, dPotential impact faction (PIF) estimates based on 63% reduction on HAP