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Table 2 Methods used by the studies included in the review

From: Cost-effectiveness of health care service delivery interventions in low and middle income countries: a systematic review

     Benefits Costs   
Study Disease area Perspective Time horizon Effectiveness estimate source(s) Discount rate Costing approach(es)a Discount rate Modelling method(s)b Sensitivity analyses
By whom care is provided
Long et al. (2011) [18] HIV Provider 1 yr Observational study NR Bottom-up NR Arithmetic Deterministic
Barton et al. (2013) [19] HIV Provider 1 yr RCT 0% Mixed 0% Arithmetic Deterministic
Marseille et al. (2014) [26] HIV Provider 20 yrs Previous modelling study 3% Bottom-up NR Arithmetic NR
Khan et al. (2002) [33] TB Societal < 1 yr RCT NR Mixed NR NR NR
Islam et al. (2002) [28] TB NR 1 yr Observational study NR Bottom-up 5% Arithmetic NR
do Prado et al. (2011) [39] TB Societal < 1 yr Observational study NR Bottom-up NR Arithmetic NR
Prinja et al. (2014) [40] Obstetric care Provider 1 yr NR NR Bottom-up 3% Arithmetic NR
Gaziano et al. (2014) [29] CVD NR 3.5 yrs Previous observational and RCT studies NR Bottom-up NR Markov model Probabilistic and deterministic
Saokaew et al. (2013) [30] Patients receiving warfarin Provider + societal Lifetime Observational study and previous evidence 3% Mixed 3% Markov model Probabilistic and deterministic
Buttorff et al. (2012) [31] Mental health NR 1 yr RCT NR Mixed 0% Arithmetic Probabilistic and deterministic
Jayaraman et al. (2009) [32] Emergency care NR 3 yrs Observational study NR NR NR Arithmetic/previous study NR
To whom care is provided
Brooker et al. (2008) [52] Helminthiasis Government 3 yrs Observational study NR Bottom-up 3% Arithmetic Deterministic
Lo et al. (2015) [53] Helminthiasis NR 15 yrs Previous observational studies 3% Previous studies and assumptions 3% Dynamic transmission model Probabilistic and deterministic
Where care is provided
Babigumira et al. (2009) [20] HIV Provider 10 yrs Observational study NR Mixed NR Decision tree Probabilistic and deterministic
Babigumira et al. (2011) [21] HIV Societal 1 yr Assumptions 3% Previous studies, mixed, and assumptions 3% Decision tree and Markov model Deterministic
Mulogo et al. (2013) [22] HIV Provider NR Observational study NR Bottom-up 3% Decision tree Deterministic
Bassett et al. (2014) [23] HIV Societal 2 yrs Previous observational studies 3% Results from previous studies 3% Simulated patient-level Markov model (CEPAC-I) Deterministic
Smith et al. (2015) [24] HIV Provider 10 yrs Assumptions, field studies 0% Mixed 3% Discrete event simulation Deterministic
Tabana et al. (2015) [25] HIV Provider < 1 yr RCT NR Bottom-up 3% Arithmetic Deterministic
Chanda et al. (2011) [34] Malaria Provider NR Observation study NR Bottom-up 5% Arithmetic NR
Kahn et al. (2012) [35] HIV, Malaria, Diarrhoea NR Lifetime Observation study NR Top-down NR Arithmetic Probabilistic and deterministic
Marseille et al. (2014) [41] HIV, Malaria, Diarrhoea Provider 3 yrs Previous observational studies 3% Previous studies and assumptions 3% Arithmetic Probabilistic and deterministic
Jafar et al. (2011) [36] Blood pressure Societal 2 yrs RCT 5% Bottom-up 5% Arithmetic Probabilistic and deterministic
Chen et al. (2012) [37] Orthopaedic surgery Provider Lifetime Observational study 3% Mixed 3% Arithmetic NR
Pitt et al. (2016) [38] Obstetric care Provider 1 yr RCT 3% Bottom-up 3% Arithmetic Deterministic and probabilistic
Quality and safety
Goodman et al. (2006) [42] Malaria Provider 1 yr Observational study NR Bottom-up 3% Decision tree Deterministic
Vella et al. (2011) [27] HIV Provider 10 yrs Observational study 3% Bottom-up 3% Decision tree Probabilistic
Barasa et al. (2012) [43] All Provider 1.5 yrs RCT 3% Mixed 3% Arithmetic Probabilistic and deterministic
Curry et al. (2013) [44] All NR (i) 15 yrs. (ii) 5 yrs Observational study 3% NR 3% Multiple models (LiST, DemProj, AIM) Deterministic
Broughton et al. (2011) [45] Pneumonia Provider 2 yrs Observational study 3% Bottom-up NR Decision tree Probabilistic
Clark et al. (2012) [46] Emergency care NR < 1 yr Observational study NR Bottom-up NR Arithmetic NR
Alfonso et al. (2015) [47] Obstetric care Societal + provider Lifetime Observational study 3% Bottom-up NR Decision tree and LiST Deterministic
Manasyan et al. (2011) [48] Obstetric care NR NR Observational study NR Bottom-up NR Arithmetic NR
Prinja et al. (2016) [49] Child health Societal + provider 15 yrs RCT 3% Bottom-up 3% Decision tree Probabilistic and deterministic
Information and communication technology
Li et al. (2012) [50] All Provider 6 yrs Observational study 10% Bottom up and previous studies 10% Arithmetic Deterministic
Anchala et al. (2015) [51] Blood pressure Societal 1 yr RCT NR Bottom up 3% Arithmetic Deterministic
  1. ANC = antenatal care; DOTS = directly observed treatment; NR = not reported;
  2. Shading separates disease groups
  3. a’Bottom-up’ costing refers to any micro-costing or ‘ingredients-based’ approaches, ‘top-down’ refers to macro-costing or activity-based approaches, and ‘mixed’ is a combination of both
  4. bMethod of determining primary result. ‘Arithmetic’ refers to any approach that calculates ICER or equivalent using only basic arithmetic and does not use a model