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Table 3 Individual compositional and contextual factors associated with Caesarean section in sub-Saharan Africa identified by multivariable multilevel logistic regression models, Demographic and Health Surveys data

From: Disparities in caesarean section prevalence and determinants across sub-Saharan Africa countries

  Place of Delivery
  Public healthcare (OR, 95% CrI) Private healthcare (OR, 95% CrI)
Age (%)
 15–24 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 25–34 1.50 (1.31 to 1.72) 2.32 (1.58 to 3.47)
 35–49 2.75 (2.33 to 3.22) 4.31 (2.83 to 6.67)
Wealth (%)
 Poorest 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Poorer 1.07 (0.87 to 1.33) 1.75 (0.78 to 3.69)
 Middle 1.14 (0.91 to 1.44) 1.24 (0.53 to 2.68)
 Richer 1.34 (1.09 to 1.70) 1.48 (0.65 to 3.21)
 Richest 1.97 (1.54 to 2.55) 2.08 (0.89 to 4.19)
Maternal’s education (%)
 No education 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Primary 1.03 (0.89 to 1.18) 1.15 (0.71 to 1.79)
 Secondary+ 1.09 (0.92 to 1.27) 1.61 (0.96 to 2.43)
Paternal’s education (%)
 No education 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Primary 1.04 (0.89 to 1.22) 0.86 (0.47 to 1.46)
 Secondary+ 1.13 (0.95 to 1.32) 1.22 (0.68 to 2.01)
Religion
 Christianity 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Islam 1.08 (0.94 to 1.25) 0.54 (0.37 to 0.75)
 Others 1.00 (0.78 to 1.23) 0.62 (0.30 to 1.08)
Media access 1.02 (0.96 to 1.09) 1.08 (0.95 to 1.23)
Female Household head 1.01 (0.89 to 1.13) 0.94 (0.71 to 1.19)
Currently working 0.92 (0.76 to 1.07) 1.02 (0.63 to 1.75)
Decision making power
 Low 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Medium 1.05 (0.93 to 1.18) 1.20 (0.91 to 1.57)
 High 1.06 (0.93 to 1.20) 1.52 (1.14 to 1.97)
Sex of child (male vs female) 1.21 (1.10 to 1.33) 1.03 (0.85 to 1.23)
Multiple birth 1.01 (0.09 to 3.24) 22.94 (4.24 to 77.55)
Number of children 0.83 (0.81 to 0.86) 0.80 (0.75 to 0.86)
Large size at birth 1.15 (1.05 to 1.26) 1.05 (0.86 to 1.27)
Antenatal care
 None 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 1 to 4 visits 0.86 (0.60 to 1.08) 0.51 (0.30 to 0.94)
 5 to 8 visits 0.98 (0.68 to 1.24) 0.60 (0.35 to 1.12)
 8 or more visits 1.28 (0.90 to 1.66) 0.84 (0.48 to 1.65)
Neighbourhood SES (%)
 Tertile 1 (least disadvantaged) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Tertile 2 0.86 (0.77 to 0.98) 1.00 (0.76 to 1.28)
 Tertile 3 (most disadvantaged) 0.79 (0.67 to 0.64) 1.04 (0.55 to 1.74)
Human Development Index (%)
 Low HDI 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Moderate HDI 1.26 (0.91 to 1.69) 0.94 (0.36 to 1.75)
 High HDI 1.26 (0.84 to 1.70) 1.09 (0.48 to 2.05)
Random-effect
Country-level
  Variance (95% CrI) 0.18 (0.10 to 0.31) 0.46 (0.21 to 0.89)
Neighbourhood-level
  Variance (95% CrI) 0.00 (0.00 to 0.00) 0.00 (0.00 to 0.00)
  1. OR Odds ratio, CrI Credible interval, MOR Median odds ratio, VPC Variance partition coefficient, DIC Bayesian Deviance Information Criteria