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Table 1 Peer-reviewed papers on health from database searches (n=20)

From: Occupational, physical, sexual and mental health and violence among migrant and trafficked commercial fishers and seafarers from the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS): systematic review

Author (year) Study design (year of data collection) Sampling method Sample description Outcomes of interest Country Study quality
Entz et al. (2000)a [18] Cross-sectional survey (1998) Convenience sampling at fishing ports N=818 Fishermen (582 Thai, 137 Burmese, 99 Cambodian) HIV/AIDS, Condom use, Alcohol/drug use Thailand Good
Entz et al. (2001)a [19] Cross-sectional survey (1998) Convenience sampling at fishing ports N=818 Fishermen (582 Thai, 137 Burmese, 99 Cambodian) Sexual health, Treatment seeking behaviour Thailand Good
Nguyen et al. (2011)[27] Cross-sectional survey (2007) Purposive sampling via marine companies N=94 Vietnamese seafarers HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis B Vietnam Poor
Ford and Chamrathrithirong (2007)b [20] Cross-sectional baseline survey (2004) Stratified, snowball sampling by occupational/ geographic groups N=1603 Fishermen (1263 Burmese, 333 Cambodian) Condom use Thailand Good
Ford and Chamrathrithirong
(2008)b [21]
Mixed methods study, cross-sectional baseline survey (2004) (study [20]), Qualitative interviews, focus groups (2007) Stratified snowball sampling by occupational/geographic groups (quantitative),
Purposive sampling (qualitative)
N=1603 Fishermen (1263 Burmese, 333 Cambodian), N=29 key informants, N=4 focus groups (5-7 Fishermen each) Condom use, HIV/AIDS knowledge Thailand Good
Musumari and Chamchan (2016)* [22] Cross-sectional baseline (2010), endline survey (2014)* Stratified, snowball sampling by occupational/ geographic groups Baseline: N=578 Fishermen (148 Myanmar, 430 Cambodian). Endline: N=510 Fishermen (125 Myanmar, 385 Cambodian) Condom use, HIV/AIDS knowledge Thailand Good
MOPH (2011) [26] Cross-sectional baseline survey (2003-5) for randomized trial Consecutive sampling in n=47 health service provider screening sites N=194 Thai fishermen (N=192 screened/tested for HIV) HIV/AIDS Thailand Good
Sopheab et al. (2006) [24] Cross-sectional household and individual survey (2002) Stratified random cluster sampling N=262 Cambodian fishermen Condom use, Healthcare seeking behaviour Cambodia Fair
Ohnmar et al. (2009) [23] Cross-sectional household survey (1999) Random sampling N=639 Burmese fishermen Sexual health – penile practices, Condom use Thailand Good
Samnang et al. (2004) [25] Cross-sectional survey (2000) Convenience sampling N=262 Cambodian fishermen HIV/AIDS/Sexual health,
Condom use, Alcohol use
Cambodia Good
UNAIDs (1998) [28] Cross-sectional survey, Qualitative in-depth interviews (year unclear) Convenience sampling (seafarers/ fishermen),
Purposive sampling (key informants)
N=110 Vietnamese seafarers/fishermen, N=173 Key informants HIV/AIDS knowledge, Drug use, Treatment seeking behaviour Vietnam Poor
Levin et al. (2010)c^ [42] Cross-sectional survey (2005) Convenience sampling at fishing port N=78 Fishermen (82% Vietnamese) Occupational health – hours, work safety attitudes USA Fair
Carruth et al. (2010)c^ [43] Focus groups, sampled from study [42] participants (year unclear) Purposive sampling N=3 Focus groups - 15 participants (9 Male, 6 Female, Vietnamese fishers/ key informants) Occupational health - work safety attitudes USA Good
Levin et al. (2016)d^ [29] Cross-sectional baseline (2008) endline (2012) surveys in prospective quasi-experimental community trial Consecutive, convenience sampling (baseline), convenience sampling (endline) (3 sites/interventions) Baseline: N=227 Fishers
(97% Vietnamese, 86% Male). Endline: N=206 Fishermen (99.0% Vietnamese, 89% Male)
Occupational health – work safety attitudes, hypertension USA Fair
Levin et al. (2016)d^ [59] Cross sectional survey (2008) Consecutive, convenience sampling N=227 Fishers (96.9% Vietnamese, 86% Male) Occupational health - hearing loss USA Fair
Hansen et al. (2008) [44] Secondary analysis of accident reporting data from 4 sources (2003) NA, Administrative records N=3253 Southeast Asian seafarers (668 Thai, 59 Vietnamese) Occupational health - accidents Denmark Fair
Pe et al. (2005)e^ [40] Cross-sectional household survey (2003) Unclear (suggests every household sampled – could be census) N=46 Sea snake bite victims (98% Fishermen) Occupational health – sea snake bite, Treatment seeking behaviour, clinical symptoms Myanmar Fair/Poor
Pe et al. (2006)e^ [41] Cross sectional household surveys (2003-4) (includes study [40]) Unclear (suggests every household sampled – could be census) N=187 Sea snake bite victims (85% Fishermen) Occupational health – sea snake bite, Treatment seeking behaviour, clinical symptoms Myanmar Fair/Poor
Doung-ngern et al. (2007) [35] Cross-sectional survey, examination of medical records (2005) Case series N=28 Fishermen (4 Thai, 24 Burmese) Occupational health – beriberi, clinical symptoms Thailand Fair
Kiss et al. (2015)^^ [31] Cross-sectional survey (2011-13) Prospective consecutive sampling in post-trafficking services N=275 Fishermen (Trafficked, 217 Cambodian – 196 Long-haul, 55 Burmese/Short-haul, 2 Thai, 1 don’t know)** Occupational health– hazards, injuries, Violence, Mental health
Treatment seeking behaviour
Thailand, Cambodia Good
  1. a same study
  2. b same study
  3. c same study. Percentage Vietnamese is assumed from percentage whose primary language is Vietnamese
  4. d same study. Percentage Vietnamese is assumed from percentage whose primary language is Vietnamese
  5. e same study
  6. ^Sample is not wholly comprised of GMS fishermen/seafarers, but includes high proportion of them in the sample
  7. *disaggregated data for fishermen from baseline and end line surveys provided by Kathleen Ford (studies 113, 209)
  8. ^^Pocock and Zimmerman were co-authors in this study
  9. **sole study among peer-reviewed health papers on trafficked fishers