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Table 4 Adjusted logistic regression of the socio-demographic factors and respiratory diseases

From: Measuring the impact of household energy consumption on respiratory diseases in India

Chronic Respiratory Disease Adjusted logistic regression
Odds Ratio P Value Confidence Interval at 95%
Cooking Fuel used
 LPG/Electricity/Biogas 1.00   
 Firewood 1.27 0.001 1.19–1.35
 Crop Residue 1.33 0.001 1.19–1.48
 Cow Dung Cake 1.17 0.007 1.04–1.31
 Coal** 1.60 0.001 1.32–1.93
 Kerosene 1.40 0.001 1.14–1.71
Standard of Living Index
 High 1.00   
 Middle 1.24 0.001 1.16–1.32
 Low 1.46 0.001 1.34–1.58
Religion
 Hindu 1.00   
 Muslim 1.13 0.003 1.04–1.22
 Christian 0.97 0.568 0.89–1.07
 Sikh 1.28 0.001 1.18–1.38
 Others 1.09 0.109 0.98–1.21
Caste
 Others 1.00   
 SCs 1.07 0.032 1.00–1.14
 STs 1.24 0.001 1.14–1.35
 OBCs 0.96 0.144 0.90–1.01
Locality
 Urban 1.00   
 Rural 1.08 0.003 1.03–1.14
Household Structure
Pucca 1.00   
 Semi-pucca 1.09 0.002 1.03–1.16
Kachha 1.18 0.001 1.09–1.28
 Other 0.95 0.763 0.66–1.35
Cooking Arrangement
 Kitchen Inside-Cooking 1.00   
 No-Kitchen Inside-cooking 1.09 0.016 1.02–1.18
 Kitchen Outside-cooking 1.07 0.056* 1.00–1.14
 No Kitchen Outside Cooking 1.05 0.381 0.94–1.16
Source of Lighting
 Electricity/Solar 1.00   
 Kerosene 1.18 0.005 1.05–1.33
 Other-oils 0.84 0.261 0.62–1.13
  1. Note: Figures are based on authors’ calculation from DLHS-IV * Significant at 10% ** includes coke and lignite