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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension in Nepal: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study ID Study design Sampling method Age range Sample size(Male/Female) Number of events Prevalence BP measurement Frequency of measurement Interval for BP measurement(min) Hypertension definition Response rate Survey year Survey site Area Quality
Hypertension(Male/Female) Prehypertension(Male/Female) Hypertension(Male/Female) Prehypertension(Male/Female)
Deewakar Sharma (2006) Cross-sectional study Systematic random sampling 18–97 1114 (541/573) 219 (120/99) 246 19.7 (22.2/17.3) 22.1 (NR) Manual 2 NR ≥ 140/90 OR medicine 90.64 Feb to Jun 2005 Southern Kathmandu Valley suburban high
U. K. Shrestha (2006) Cross-sectional study Cluster sampling ≥ 40 1012 (423/589) 236 (99/137) NR 23.3 (23.4/23.3) NR Manual 2 0.5 ≥ 140/90 85.7 2001 to 2002 Seven urban municipalities urban high
Vaidya A (2007)a Cross-sectional study Simple random sampling ≥ 35 1000 (1000/0) 227 (227/−) NR - (22.7/−) NR Manual 2 5 ≥ 140/90 OR medicine NR 2004 to 2005 Dharan Municipality urban middle
Koju R (2010) Cross-sectional study Systematic random sampling 18–88 796 (306/490) 230 (88/142) 232 28.9 (28.8/29) 29.1 (NR) Manual 2 30 ≥ 140/90 OR medicine 69.22 2007 Dhulikhel Municipality suburban high
Sanjib Kumar Sharma (2010)b Cross-sectional study NR 18–97 8397 (3199/5185) 3009 (1341/1668) 3230 (1247/1983) 36 (42/32) 39 (39/38) Manual 1 NR ≥ 140/90 OR medicine NR 2007 Dharan\Tarahara\Damak\Biratnagar\Birtamod urban middle
Sanjib Kumar Sharma (2011) Cross-sectional study NR 20–100 14,422 (5327/8679) 4894 (2164/2603) NR 34 (40.7/30) NR Manual 1 NR ≥ 140/90 OR medicine NR 2007 Dharan\Tarahara\Damak\Biratnagar\Birtamod urban middle
KD Mehta (2011) Cross-sectional study NR ≥ 30 1938 (NR) 615 (NR) 752 31.7 (NR) 38.8 (NR) Manual 2 5 ≥ 140/90 93.85 Sep 2005 to Jul 2006 Sunsari District both middle
Chataut J (2011) Cross-sectional study NR ≥ 18 527 (214/313) 118 (70/48) 253 22.4 (32.7/15.3) 48 (NR) Manual 2 NR ≥ 140/90 NR NR Bolde (a rural village in hilly region of central part of Nepal) rural low
Abhinav Vaidya (2012) Cross-sectional study NR ≥ 21 1218 (527/691) 412 (202/213) NR 33.8 (38.3/30.8) NR Manual 1 NR ≥ 140/90 84 2006 Bhadrabas village area of Kathmandu Valley rural high
Rumana J Khan (2013)a Cross-sectional study NR 16.4–71.2 15,934 (0/15934) 530 (−/530) 2296 - (−/3.3) -(−/14.4) Digital 4 NR ≥ 140/90 96.75 2006 to 2008 Sarlahi District rural middle
Abhinav Vaidya (2013) Cross-sectional study Kish technique 25–59 777 (229/548) 168 (NR) NR 21.6 (NR) NR Digital 3 5 ≥ 140/90 OR medicine 93.92 Sep to Nov 2011 JD-HDSS of Bhaktapur District in the Kathmandu Valley suburban high
Sanjib Kumar Sharma (2013) Cross-sectional study NR ≥ 20 3218 (1542/1676) 1243 (NR) NR 38.6 (NR) NR NR NR NR ≥ 140/90 OR medicine NR 2003 to 2005 Four VDCs in Dharan Municipality rural middle
Adhikari K (2014) Cross-sectional study Systemic random sampling 15–64 1240 (665/575) 276 (165/111) 510 (285/225) 22.3 (24.8/19.3) 41.1 (42.8/39.1) NR NR NR ≥ 140/91 OR medicine NR Mar to Jun 2013 Six urban and six rural districts both middle
Bhandari S (2014)a Interventional study NR 15–49 14,300 (0/14300) 948 (−/948) NR - (−/6.6) NR Manual NR NR ≥ 140/90 OR medicine NR 2011 to 2012 VDCs of nine districts rural low
Koju R (2015) Cross-sectional study Multistage random cluster sampling 18–65 2100 (861/1239) 317 (187/130) 915 15.1 (21.7/10.5) 43.6 (NR) Digital 2 2 ≥ 140/90 99.6 May-13 Nationwide both high
Chataut J (2015) Cross-sectional study NR ≥ 18 648 (258/390) 133 (79/54) 302 (115/187) 20.5 (30.6/13.8) 46.6 (44.5/47.9) Manual NR NR ≥ 140/90 OR medicine NR NR Ramechap District rural low
Krishna Kumar Aryal (2015) Cross-sectional study Multistage random cluster sampling 15–69 4143 (1336/2807) 1065 (415/578) NR 25.7 (31.1/20.6) NR Digital 3 3 ≥ 140/90 OR medicine 98.2 Jan to June 2013 Nationwide both high
Raja Ram Dhungana (2016) Cross-sectional study Systematic random sampling 18–70 587 (242/345) 191 (93/98) NR 32.5 (38.4/28.4) NR Manual 3 3 ≥ 140/90 OR medicine 97.8 Jan to Jul 2015 Kageshwari-Manohara and Nagarjun Municipalities urban middle
Biraj M Karmacharya (2017) Cross-sectional study Simple random sampling ≥ 18 1073 (446/627) 298 (167/131) NR 27.8 (37.4/20.9) NR Digital 3 NR ≥ 140/90 OR medicine NR Nov 2013 to Feb 2015 Dhulikhel Municipality suburban high
Dinesh Neupane (2017) Cross-sectional study Kish technique 25–65 2815 (971/1844) 838 (369/424) NR 29.8 (38/23) NR Digital 3 NR ≥ 140/90 OR medicine 98 2013 Lekhnath Municipality suburban high
Mahesh Kumar Khana (2017) Cross-sectional study Multistage clustered sampling ≥ 30 1159 (335/824) 451 (161/290) NR 38.9 (48.1/35.2) NR Digital 2 3 ≥ 140/90 OR medicine 96.6 Jan to Dec 2016 Birendranagar Municipality of Surkhet District Urban High
Ministry of Health,Nepal (2017) Cross-sectional study Two stage stratified cluster sampling ≥ 15 14,494 (6059/8435) 2835 (1418/1417) 3961 (1903/2058) 19.6 (23.4/16.8) 27.3 (31.4/24.4) Digital 3 5 ≥ 140/90 OR medicine 99 Jun 2016 to Jan 2017 Nationwide both high
Basant Maharjan (2018) Cross-sectional study Proportionate probability sampling 20–59 580 (264/316) 215 (110/105) 130 37.0 (41.6/32.2) 22.4 (NR) Digital NR NR ≥ 140/90 OR medicine NR Dec 2015 to Apr 2016 Kirtipur Municipality urban middle
  1. aThe study conducted among specific gender groups was only included in the gender-specific subgroup analysis.bThe study contained overlapped respondents with another study (Sanjib Kumar Sharma 2011), and was only included in the pre-hypertensive prevalence estimation
  2. NR not reported
  3. —: not applicable