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Table 4 Summary Table of Articles Included in Review

From: The impacts of the global gag rule on global health: a scoping review

Authors/(Year) (Title) peer review/grey lit Country/region focus Type of Study and methods Approach Key findings on the Impact of the GGR
Asiedu, E., Nanivazo, M., & Nkusu, M, (2013) [18]: Determinants of foreign aid in family planning: How relevant is the Mexico City Policy? Working paper unpublished (grey lit) 151 developing countries Quantitative (difference and system GMM estimators): panel data from WDI and OECD Analyze the determinants of Family Panning (FP) Aid and examine the extent to which US foreign policy on FP affects the allocation of FP aid to developing countries- particularly examining the effect of MCP on the allocation of FP aid to developing countries Impact on: Family Planning (FP AID, all things equal, decreased by 3–6% during Bush-era policy years)
Bendavid, E., Avila, P., & Miller, G. (2011) [5]: United States aid policy and induced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa Peer- review 20 African countries Quantitative difference-in-difference analysis: DHS data from 261,116 women aged 15–44 yrs. Determine the relationship between the reinstatement of MCP and the probability of a woman in SSA having an induced abortion rate Impact on: abortion rates (GGR was associated with a 2.55 greater increase in the odds of self-reported abortion in high MCP-exposure countries vs. low MCP-exposure countries); Modern contraceptives (relative decline in contraceptive use in high exposure countries)
Bingenheimer, J. B., & Skuster, P. (2017) [11]: The Foreseeable Harms of Trump’s Global Gag Rule Peer- review commentary n/a Qualitative analysis (commentary): summarizes and analyzes impacts of the GGR up until 2017 Provide a scientific and policy basis for the three criticisms of the GGR: (1) that the rule fails to accomplish its presumed objective of reducing the number of abortions; (2) that it negatively affects the health and well-being of individuals and populations in affected countries; and (3) that it interferes with governments’ ability to meet their international obligations. Impact on: maternal deaths (premised linkage associations); FP programs disrupted; child health poor; socio-economic developments are poor; contraceptive use; abortion rates; fertility; loss of funding; abortion rates; advocacy
Blane, J., & Friedman, M. (1990) [19]: Mexico City Policy implementation study Organizational report 5 Cooperating Agencies (FHI; Pathfinder; IPPF/WHR; Center for Development and Population Activities; and the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception) and 49 subgrantees of theirs in 6 countries- (10 in Pakistan, 8 Bangladesh, 12 Brazil, 8 Kenya, 4 Egypt, 7 Turkey) Qualitative interviews; site inspections; document reviews & analysis Determine whether recipients of grants and their sub-grantees are in compliance with MCP 2) determine whether the standard clause is understood by the grantees & subgrantees 3) determine what impact if any the MCP has had on FP programs Impact on: advocacy; partnerships & coalitions; provider-client interactions; confusion & poor policy understanding; poor communication; chilling effect (self-censoring & over-caution);
Bogecho, D., & Upreti, M. (2006) [20]. (CRR): The Global Gag Rule--an antithesis to the rights-based approach to health Commentary peer review Kenya & Nepal Qualitative narrative: based on country case findings Summarizing the impact of the GGR in Nepal & Kenya. In Kenya, the GGR impact was on health services. In Nepal, the GGR impact was on human rights. Impact on Kenya: loss of funding for FPAK & MSI; severe disruption of FP services (closed 8 clinics (6 FPAK & 2 MSI)- 28,000 clients were denied health services, fire over 30% of their staff & cut back services); HIV prevention efforts like VCT & HIV prevention services were severely restricted. Impact on Nepal: Rights to health, life & information is hampered: loss of funding (FPAN suffered budget setbacks for rejecting the GGR); FP services disrupted (clinics were closed & staff laid off overnight); government impact (government liberalized the abortion law and was reliant on NGOs to provide abortion services, and track implementation of the new law, they were not able to do so once FPAN did not sign the GGR.
Camp, S. (1987) [21]: The impact of the Mexico City Policy on women and health care in developing countries Peer-review commentary 8 developing countries & the U.S.A Qualitative narrative analysis: Reporting on interviews with family planning organizations in the US and 8 developing countries Review the development & scope of the MCP as well as present preliminary findings of ongoing research evaluating the impact of MCP on foreign FP and population assistance programs Impact on: loss of funding; confusion & poor policy understanding; increased administrative burden; chilling effect (self-censoring & overcautiousness); partnerships & coalitions;
Carroll, L (2012) [22] / University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: The Effects of the Mexico City Policy on Antenatal Care and Skilled Birth Attendance in Developing Countries Master’s Thesis 37 developing countries Quantitative analysis: DHS data from 98 surveys between 1998 and 2008 for 251,602 women ages 15–49 years To determine if women in countries with a high degree of exposure to the Mexico City Policy have diminished odds of having effective antenatal care and skilled birth attendance at delivery compared to women in countries with a lower degree of exposure to the policy Impact on maternal health (skilled birth attendance & antenatal care): outcomes improved in most parts of the world between 1993 and 2000 and 2001–2008 regardless of exposure to the policy.
Chávez, S., & Coe, A.-B. (2007) [23]: Emergency Contraception in Peru: Shifting Government and Donor Policies and Influences Peer-review Peru Qualitative narrative analysis: Reporting on information gathered from on-going monitoring conducted by authors of reproductive health and rights policies in Peru Analyze the trajectory and reasons for several shifts in USAID/Peru’s policy on EC within the context of changes in government policy on FP in both countries Impact on: Advocacy for liberal abortion laws (due to poor understanding of the policy anti-choice groups leveraged the GGR to stop the USAID/Peru from engaging in Emergency contraceptive provision)
Choudhury, S./ Georgetown University (2012) [24]: Quantitative analysis: DHS data for individual women in Ghana Master’s Thesis Ghana Quantitative analysis: DHS data (1998 & 2001) for individual women and men in Malawi Examine the effect of the Mexico City Policy on access to modern contraceptive methods, prenatal care, and delivery assistance Impact on: Bush-era GGR had negative effects on prenatal care access in rural and urban areas.
Crane, B. B., & Dusenberry, J. (2004) [25]: Power and politics in international funding for reproductive health: the US Global Gag Rule Peer- review n/a Qualitative narrative analysis: describes the GGR and its impacts- especially the Bush-era GGR. Reviews the history and political origins of the Gag Rule under several Republican party presidents, including its roots in US domestic abortion politics, and analyses the short and long-term damage the Gag Rule is causing to the health and lives of women in the developing world. Impact on: loss of funding (IPPF & MSI); human rights & autonomy; lack of transparency (USAID did not provide information on policy implementation); abortion (not reduced abortions); projected HIV and AIDS impacts; separating partnerships between ‘gagged’ and ‘ungagged’; contraceptive supply; chilling effects
Crimm, N. J. (2007) [26]: The Global Gag Rule: Undermining national interests by doing unto foreign women and NGOs what cannot be done at home Peer- review n/a Qualitative narrative analysis: narrates an analysis of the harms to human rights, autonomy, reproductive health and family planning of GGR Analysis that focuses on the GGR’s grave harm to U.S. national interests; human rights & autonomy of foreign women; family planning and reproductive health Impact on: human rights & autonomy; women’s rights (oppressed women by controlling and restricting their access to information and health care); chilling effects; family planning and reproductive health (the GGR has barrelled and even hampered the work/efforts of foreign NGOs & their HWs in providing RH and FP services); clinic closures; freedoms of speech & association, are silenced.
CRR (2009) [27]: Expanded Global Gag Rule Limits Women’s Rights and Endangers Their Well-being Report 14 Countries (Kenya, Nigeria, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Haiti, Tanzania, Uganda, Cote D’Ivoire; Zambia, Namibia, Botswana, Guyana, South Africa) Qualitative descriptive summary & analysis of direct and potential GGR effects Describes GGR expansion under the Bush administration, and uses analysis of abortion laws in 14 countries to reveal harmful GGR effects Impact on: Loss of funding; abortion, advocacy, FP, GBV, global health assistance, HIV/AIDS & STIs, maternal mortality, reproductive health; free speech silenced
Curtis, C., Farrell, B., & Ahlborg, J. (2005) [28]: Cambodia Postabortion Care: Cambodia Postabortion Care Program. Final report of findings and recommendations. Cambodia trip report: dates April 25, 2005, to May 6, 2005 Report (grey) Cambodia Qualitative descriptive narrative analysis: interviews with staff from USAID/ Cambodia; CARE; RHAC; RACHA; the Ministry of Health; and Directors of operational districts. Site visits to health centers, community education sessions; and the Red Cross Hospital. Documents review of national policy documents; PAC curriculums; service delivery guidelines; USAID/ Cambodia post-abortion care draft strategy USAID report: an assessment of Cambodia’s Post Abortion Care Program & compliance to the Bush-era Mexico City Policy conducted by USAID/Washington Impact on: Post Abortion Care (PAC)- Cambodia was in compliance with the GGR: Potential maternal health impact; Confusion- CARE/Cambodia had entered a contract with MOH & was unsure at what point they will violate the GGR; Providers at RHAC were trained on GGR; lack of clarity- questions regarding the MCP and separation of abortion care vs. post-abortion care especially in rural health centers were the usually is only one midwife providing all types of care.
Ernst, J., & Mor, T. (CRR) (2003) [29]: Breaking the Silence: The Global Gag Rule’s Impact on Unsafe Abortion Report Ethiopia, Kenya, Peru, Uganda Qualitative narrative & overview analysis: interviews with a broad range of reproductive health, U.N. and government actors in 4 countries (25–30 interviews per country) Documenting Bush-era GGR impacts on organizations normally receiving USAID family planning funding Impacts on: loss of funding, abortion, advocacy, commodities (EC), FP, global health assistance, HIV/AIDS & STIs, human rights, infectious diseases (immunizations), key populations (AGYW), maternal mortality/morbidity, reproductive health
Foster, S. C./ Georgetown University (2009) [30]: Trends in condom use: The association in Malawi of condom use with AIDS knowledge and the relationship to the global gag rule Master’s Thesis Malawi Quantitative analysis: DHS data (2000 & 2004) for individual women and men in Malawi Examines the relationship between the characteristics of individual Malawians and their condom use over time, and evaluates the impact of GGR overtime Impact: There is a positive relationship between AIDS knowledge and condom use in Malawi. The GGR has a negative effect on condom use over time;
Fox, G. H. (1985) [31]: American population policy abroad: The Mexico City abortion funding restrictions Peer review n/a Qualitative descriptive narration & analysis Historical context on the legalities surrounding the GGR with a policy/legislative focus. Impact on: loss of funding, lack of clarity in how to implement 1985 GGR, AID had not yet come up with the abortion funding restrictions for the GGR. All funding to UNFPA was terminated & it remained unclear which organizations would be impacted. MCP imposes a view on abortion which many NGOs do not share.
Gezinski, L.B. (2011) [32]: The Global Gag Rule: Impacts of a Conservative Ideology on Women’s Health. Peer-review n/a Qualitative literature review & narrative policy analysis Outline the legislative history of the Global Gag Rule and will describe the key stakeholders responsible for the policy’s passage and promotion Impact on: human rights; political advocacy; law; reproductive health; abortion, perceived and real loss of funding; and the health system effects that were associated with that (decreased access to contraceptives, increased rates of unwanted pregnancies, as well as increased abortions resulting in harm or death
Jones, A. A. (2004) [33]: The “Mexico City Policy” and Its Effects on HIV / AIDS Services in Sub-Saharan Africa Peer review Sub-Saharan Africa (Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia) Qualitative thematic- narrative & analysis Analyze and show the impact of GGR on HIV/AIDS programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Impact on: loss of funding HIV/AIDS Services that are provided by Family Planning clinics (Health centers were closed down −17 Uganda, 5 Kenya, 1 Ethiopia). HIV/AIDS services are usually integrated into FP programs; advocacy coalitions were disbanded; human rights violation; legal rights of women with HIV
Jones, Kelly, M (2015) [34]: Contraceptive Supply and Fertility Outcomes: Evidence from Ghana Peer-review Ghana Quantitative analysis: DHS data for individual women in Ghana To examine Ghanaian women’s response to a reduction in the availability of modern contraceptives in terms of contraceptive access and use, resulting pregnancies, use of induced abortion, and resulting births. The exogenous change in availability is due to GGR-related loss of funding and the associated outcomes of this loss. Impact on: Loss of funding (PPAG agreed to sign the MCP to keep ¼ of its budget that was USAID funded for the CBS project; PPAG funding from IPPF (75% of its budget) was reduced by 54%); contraception (contraceptive ability was reduced during policy periods which affected contraceptive use); family planning programs (PPAG closed down 57% of its clinics).
Jones, K. M. (2011) [4]: Evaluating the Mexico City Policy: How US foreign policy affects fertility outcomes and child health in Ghana Report (grey) Ghana Quantitative analysis (estimation employing woman-by month panel of pregnancies & woman-fixed effects): DHS MEASURE data for Ghanaian women Estimate whether a given woman is less likely to abort a pregnancy during two policy periods versus two non-policy periods. Impact on: abortion (Regressive effects: increased (200000) abortions in a rural area); additional 12% unintended pregnancies and 1/2 to 3/4 million additional unintended births due to loss of contraceptive health services; as well as dilapidated child health in height and weight for age for children born from these unintended births. The GGR does not achieve its aim for women in the Ghana context.
Law, S. A., & Rackner, L. F. (1987) [35]: Gender Equality and the Mexico City Policy Peer review n/a Qualitative descriptive narration & analysis Provides comparative historical contexts of the legalities and constitution surrounding the MCP as well as gender (equality). Then provides a gender equality analysis of the MCP Impact on: women’s rights- discriminates against women & their health providers by not providing all information to make fully informed choices; family planning; abortion; freedom of choice- the GGR disrespects choice and dignity of women they cannot choose to bear or not bear children: the GGR fails on equality
Leitner Center for International Law and Justice / Fordham Law School (2010) [36]: Exporting Confusion: U.S. foreign policy as an obstacle to the implementation of Ethiopia’s liberalized abortion law. New York: Fordham Law School Report Ethiopia Qualitative interviews & analysis: women, donors, providers, NGO & government staff, Examines the effects of US foreign assistance and policies on Ethiopia’s attempts to deal with unsafe abortions, high maternal mortality and liberal abortion laws Impact on: Ethiopia’s attempt to address high rates of unsafe abortion through the liberalization of its abortion law; GGR has negatively affected the availability of comprehensive safe abortion services for Ethiopian women; US exported domestic debate about abortion to Ethiopia
Neier, A. (1987) [37]: The right to free expression under international law: implications of the Mexico City Policy Peer-review n/a Qualitative thematic descriptions & analysis Explore how the MCP is a violation of international freedoms of expression, speech, and opinion in the context of the US ratifying and adopting these international declarations Impact on: the freedom of expression and opinion- human rights (implementing the GGR means the US is violating internationally recognized freedom of expression rights); chilling effects
Nowels, L. (2001) [38]: International family planning: the “Mexico City” policy. Updated April 2, 2001. CRS Report for Congress. Report (grey) n/a Qualitative thematic descriptions & analysis Reviews the experience of the original “Mexico City” policy between 1984 and early 1993: provides background on the 1984 decision (policy implementation, legal challenges, funding reallocation, an assessment of the impact and implications of the Mexico City policy, and a summary account of congressional efforts to modify the policy Impact on: Loss of funding (IPPF); court challenges delayed GGR clauses being attached for some organizations; Family planning AID (The US said it would keep the Family Planning aid amounts the same and reallocate funds that would otherwise have gone to IPPF/London ($16.5mil) and UNFPA (10mil) in the 1985 version implementation, to organizations that certify for the GGR).; Lack of clarity & confusion.
PAI (2005) [38, 39]: Access Denied – The Impact of the Global Gag Rule in Ethiopia Case Study Report Ethiopia Qualitative interviews with key informants (women, girls, health providers, NGO & government staff) & analysis Describes and analyses the direct and potential threats of the G.W. Bush-era GGR in Ethiopia Impact on: Loss of funding, the GGR has resulted in the loss of technical assistance and contraceptive donations to key NGOs in Ethiopia, worsening the country’s supply shortage. CBD programs were shut down, condom corners were closed. Misinformation and incorrect policing of HIV/AIDS programs by GGR were widespread. Some organizations could no longer advocate for more liberal abortion laws in Ethiopia
PAI (2005) [38, 39]: Access Denied – The Impact of the Global Gag Rule in Ghana Case Study Report Ghana Qualitative interviews with key informants (women, girls, health providers, NGO & government staff) & analysis Describes and analyses the direct and potential threats of the G.W. Bush-era GGR in Ghana Impact on: loss of funding; disrupted key reproductive health programs; cut back essential rural outreach activities and clinic services; dismantled partnerships between reproductive health organizations and HIV/AIDS activities.
PAI (2005) [38, 39]: Access Denied – The Impact of the Global Gag Rule in Kenya Case Study Report Kenya Qualitative interviews with key informants (women, girls, health providers, NGO & government staff) & analysis Describes and analyses the direct and potential threats of the G.W. Bush-era GGR in Kenya Impact on: loss of funding-Reproductive Health (RH) care deteriorated, fertility increased, contraceptive uptake stagnated, medically assisted birth rate plummeted. The GGR exacerbates an already worse reproductive health situation; clinics closed down; staff laid off; splintered integrated services
PAI (2005) [38, 39]: Access Denied – The Impact of the Global Gag Rule in Nepal Case Study Report Nepal Qualitative interviews with key informants (women, girls, health providers, NGO & government staff) & analysis Describes and analyses the direct and potential threats of the G.W. Bush-era GGR in Nepal Impact on: loss of funding; Innovative RH programs have been terminated; Free speech, expression and opinion for the democratic liberalization of abortion laws curtailed; Government’s sovereignty infringed upon
PAI (2005) [38, 39]: Access Denied – The Impact of the Global Gag Rule in Tanzania Case Study Report Tanzania Qualitative interviews with key informants (women, girls, health providers, NGO & government staff) & analysis Describes and analyses the direct and potential threats of the G.W. Bush-era GGR in Tanzania Impact on: Loss of funding - two major FP organizations in Tanzania withdrew critical technical support for the government’s FP programs; worsening contraceptive supply problems; rural clinics were closed; Key staff were lost/fired
PAI (2005) [38, 39]: Access Denied – The Impact of the Global Gag Rule in Zambia Case Study Report Zambia Qualitative interviews with key informants (women, girls, health providers, NGO & government staff) & analysis Describes and analyses the direct and potential threats of the G.W. Bush-era GGR in Zambia Impact on: already struggling FP and RH provision is exacerbated; staff laid off and reduced services; HIV prevention efforts deprioritized which inhibits of HIV/AIDS + FP integration efforts.
PAI (2005) [38, 39]: Access Denied – The Impact of the Global Gag Rule in Zimbabwe Case Study Report Zimbabwe Qualitative interviews with key informants (women, girls, health providers, NGO & government staff) & analysis Describes and analyses the direct and potential threats of the G.W. Bush-era GGR in Zimbabwe Impact on: loss of funding; restricted critical partnerships addressing both FP and HIV/AIDs; reduced family planning funds; (Brooke- Alexander Amendment + GGR); scaled back family planning programs with staff layoffs
PAI (2017) [9, 10, 40]: The Global Gag Rule & Maternal Deaths Due to Unsafe Abortion Report Various countries as examples Qualitative narrative analysis Describes and analyses the direct and potential threats of the Trump-era expanded GGR on unsafe abortions and maternal mortality Impact on: advocacy to reduce injuries and maternal deaths caused by unsafe abortions in countries receiving U.S. aid; silences free speech and national sovereignty, and discourages democratic debate on abortion law reform in Kenya, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Uganda, Nigeria; hinders the efforts of governments and NGOs in seeking international assistance to implement new, liberalized abortion laws. The GGR contradicts international agreements.
PAI (2017) [9, 10, 40]: The Global Gag Rule & Contraceptive Supplies Report commentary n/a Qualitative narrative analysis Describes and analyses the direct and potential threats of the Trump-era expanded GGR on contraceptive supplies Impacts on: Organizations that don’t sign the GGR also lose access to U.S.-donated contraceptives, including condoms, which enable women and men to prevent unintended pregnancy, protect themselves from HIV/AIDS, and avoid unsafe abortion (a leading cause of maternal injury, illness, and death in the developing world).
PAI (2017) [9, 10, 40]: Trump’s Global Gag Rule and Ethiopia Report Ethiopia Qualitative descriptions summary (from fact-finding) & analysis Describes and analyses the direct and potential threats of the Trump-era expanded GGR Impact on: loss of funding; contraceptive supply distribution for two largest in-country contraceptive service delivery organizations (Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia and Marie Stopes International Ethiopia)- could increase Ethiopia’s unmet need, which currently stands at 22.3%; Progress on improving maternal mortality is likely to stall; miscommunication around the GGR could impact the implementation of liberalized abortion law in Ethiopia. PLGHA may scale back condom distribution; deteriorate integrated services, increasing the difficulty of accessing comprehensive health services. The impact of PLGHA will be disproportionately felt by young, rural, and poor women and girls.
PAI (2017) [9, 10, 40]: Trump’s Global Gag Rule and Senegal Report Senegal Qualitative descriptions summary (from fact-finding) & analysis Describes and analyses the direct and potential threats of the Trump-era expanded GGR in Senegal Impact on: risk of losing funding; threatening increase the already high 25% unmet contraceptive need in the country; GGR places close to $8.5mil of SRHR funds at risk in Senegal (either programs will be delayed, toned down or closed). Abortion laws in Senegal are restrictive & GGR may increase the 63% unsafe abortions; increase confusion + fear surrounding implementation restrictions & conditions
Seevers, R. E. (2005) [41]: The Politics of Gagging: The Effects of the Global Gag Rule on Democratic Participation and Political Advocacy in Peru. Peer review Peru Qualitative narratives & analysis Examine the damaging effects of the Global Gag Rule on civil participation and political advocacy by NGOs focusing on reproductive rights in Peru and the overall effect this may have on the country’s emerging conception of democracy Impact on: disrupted democracy and advocacy processes in Peru. Peru’s priorities included active civil society and NGOs engagement. The same NGOs that were being engaged for democracy & governance were also being gagged by the GGR- free speech, opinion and expression were heavily regulated
Skuster, P. (2004) [42]: Advocacy in whispers: the impact of the USAID Global Gag Rule upon free speech and free association in the context of abortion law reform in three East African countries Peer review Uganda, Ethiopia, Kenya Qualitative interviews with key informants (NGOs, Government Officials) in Kenya, Uganda & Ethiopia & Thematic analysis To study the effect of the GGR upon the free speech and free association of advocates of access to safe abortion Impact on: coalitions and partnerships that have political authority and power; advocacy- the GGR curtails the ability of the reproductive health community to bring information on the effect of the restrictive law to lawmakers; chilling effect & silencing; promoted anti-choice narratives; splinters coalitions/ partnerships
Sneha Barot & Susan A. Cohen / Guttmacher (2015) [43]: The Global Gag Rule and Fights over Funding UNFPA: The Issues That Won’t Go Away Report Lesotho and Madagascar Qualitative analysis synthesizing GGR effects Descriptive synthesis of GGR-related loss of funding and its impacts on family planning as well as analysis of UNFPA funding cuts. Impact on: legal challenges (Clinton administration); abortion, contraceptive supplies; family planning programs, loss of funding, chilling effect of the GGR continues even in non- policy years
Sneha Barot/ Guttmacher (2017) [44]: When Antiabortion Ideology Turns into Foreign Policy: How the Global Gag Rule Erodes Health, Ethics, and Democracy Report n/a Qualitative analysis synthesizing GGR effects on health, ethics, and democracy descriptive synthesis of GGR-related impact on loss of funding, health, ethics, and democracy Impact on: Abortion, advocacy for liberal abortion laws, global health assistance, HIV/AIDS & STIs, human rights, diseases (immunization): confusion & lack of clarity; disrupted health programs; disintegrated health programs; fractured partnerships between US NGO and their local partners, and coalition spaces; hindered free speech, expression, and opinion
Susan A. Cohen/ Guttmacher (2009) [45]: The Reproductive Health Needs of Refugees and Displaced People: An Opening for Renewed U.S. Leadership Report n/a Qualitative description and analysis Describes the effect of US foreign policy including GGR on the reproductive needs of refugees and displaced populations Impacts on: coalition spaces (terminated the RHRC consortium)
Susan A. Cohen/ Guttmacher (2011) [46]: U.S. Overseas Family Planning Program, Perennial Victim of Abortion Politics, Is Once Again Under Siege Report n/a Qualitative description and analysis Examines established impacts of the GGR recap/citations & analysis Impacts of the GGR: it does not reduce abortions; effective family planning programs closed down, contraceptive supply distribution is disrupted; silencing of advocacy around unsafe abortions
van Dalen, H. P. (2008) [47]: Designing Global Collective Action in Population and HIV/AIDS Programs, 1983–2002: Has Anything Changed? Peer review n/a Quantitative analysis: Panel data on expenditures of OECD donors for three types of aid agencies (multilateral, NGOs, and bilateral aid) for the years 1983–2002 Explore which forces might be relevant in explaining the provision of foreign aid through the set of aid channels toward family planning and HIV/AIDS programs Impact on other donor funding: the GGR implementation years had no visible aggregate effect on other donors’ levels of funding
Yana van der Meulen Rodgers/ Rutgers University (2018) [48]: Impact of the Gag: New Estimates Book Chapter Latin America and the Caribbean, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa (unpublished work) Quantitative analysis-regression analysis using DHS data Determine the relationship between the reinstatement of G.W. Bush GGR induced abortion rate for women in 4 global regions Impact on induced abortion rates: Women in Latin America and the Caribbean, highly exposed to the GGR, had more than 3 times the odds of having an abortion, compared to women in less exposed countries & before policy reinstatement. In SSA, Women highly exposed to the GGR had about 2 times the odds of having an abortion, compared to women in less exposed countries & before policy reinstatement. In Eastern Europe and the Middle East, and in South and Southeast Asia, the odds of having an abortion declined in highly exposed countries after reinstatement, compared to low exposed countries. The relationship between strict abortion laws & women’s likelihood of having an abortion needs further research.