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Table 4 Determinants of overweight/obesity among women of reproductive age in India1,2

From: Prevalence and factors associated with underweight, overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age in India

Characteristics Asian WHO
COR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) COR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Age (in years)
 15–19 (Ref.) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 20–29 2.76 (2.66–2.87) 1.84 (1.79–1.90) 2.99 (2.84–3.16) 1.95 (1.87–2.03)
 30–39 5.53 (5.33–5.73) 3.68 (3.56–3.79) 6.21 (5.89–6.55) 3.96 (3.80–4.13)
 40–49 7.24 (6.97–7.51) 5.00 (4.84–5.17) 8.18 (7.75–8.63) 5.38 (5.15–5.61)
Parity
 Never pregnant (Ref.) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 1–4 2.93 (2.86–3.00) 1.11 (1.08–1.14) 3.08 (2.99–3.18) 1.13 (1.09–1.16)
  ≥ 5 2.15 (2.07–2.22) 1.03 (0.99–1.07) 2.27 (2.17–2.36) 1.11 (1.07–1.16)
Hormonal contraceptive use
 No (Ref.) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.18 (1.12–1.23) 1.05 (1.02–1.08) 1.06 (1.01–1.12) 0.99 (0.96–1.02)
Marital status
 Never married (Ref.) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Married 3.35 (3.27–3.45) 1.54 (1.49–1.59) 3.76 (3.62–3.90) 1.65 (1.59–1.72)
 Widowed 3.68 (3.48–3.89) 1.38 (1.32–1.44) 4.07 (3.80–4.35) 1.50 (1.42–1.58)
 Divorced/separated 2.92 (2.69–3.18) 1.29 (1.21–1.37) 3.36 (3.04–3.72) 1.49 (1.39–1.60)
Religion
 Hindu 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Muslim 1.18 (1.14–1.21) 1.30 (1.28–1.33) 1.23 (1.18–1.28) 1.36 (1.34–1.39)
 Others (Ref.) 1.33 (1.28–1.38) 1.18 (1.15–1.21) 1.33 (1.27–1.39) 1.13 (1.10–1.16)
Caste
 Scheduled caste 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Scheduled tribe 0.61 (0.58–0.64) 0.84 (0.82–0.86) 0.57 (0.54–0.60) 0.78 (0.75–0.80)
 Other backward class 1.18 (1.15–1.22) 0.99 (0.98–1.01) 1.23 (1.18–1.27) 1.00 (0.98–1.02)
 Other (Ref.) 1.55 (1.50–1.60) 1.14 (1.12–1.16) 1.61 (1.55–1.67) 1.16 (1.13–1.19)
Education
 No formal education (Ref.) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Primary 1.28 (1.24–1.32) 1.18 (1.15–1.20) 1.34 (1.30–1.39) 1.19 (1.16–1.22)
 Secondary 1.25 (1.22–1.28) 1.28 (1.26–1.30) 1.35 (1.32–1.39) 1.29 (1.26–1.32)
 Higher 1.52 (1.46–1.57) 1.23 (1.20–1.27) 1.54 (1.48–1.60) 1.20 (1.17–1.24)
Wealth quintile
 Poorest (Ref.) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Poorer 1.73 (1.67–1.78) 1.53 (1.49–1.57) 1.92 (1.84–2.01) 1.69 (1.64–1.75)
 Middle 2.71 (2.62–2.79) 2.19 (2.14–2.25) 3.22 (3.09–3.36) 2.60 (2.52–2.68)
 Richer 4.13 (4.00–4.26) 3.03 (2.95–3.10) 5.15 (4.94–5.36) 3.74 (3.62–3.87)
 Richest 5.59 (5.41–5.79) 3.90 (3.79–4.01) 6.93 (6.64–7.23) 4.83 (4.66–5.00)
Place of residence
 Urban 2.15 (2.10–2.20) 1.28 (1.26–1.30) 2.28 (2.22–2.34) 1.32 (1.30–1.34)
 Rural (Ref.) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Region
 Central 0.64 (0.62–0.66) 0.75 (0.74–0.77) 0.64 (0.62–0.66) 0.76 (0.74–0.79)
 Eastern 0.77 (0.75–0.80) 0.97 (0.95–0.99) 0.75 (0.73–0.78) 1.02 (0.99–1.04)
 Northeastern 0.73 (0.71–0.76) 0.98 (0.96–1.00) 0.65 (0.62–0.68) 0.92 (0.89–0.94)
 Northern (Ref.) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Southern 1.56 (1.51–1.61) 1.26 (1.23–1.28) 1.58 (1.53–1.64) 1.29 (1.27–1.32)
 Western 1.08 (1.05–1.12) 0.85 (0.83–0.87) 1.12 (1.08–1.17) 0.87 (0.85–0.89)
  1. 1. Asian and WHO classifications categorize overweight/obesity as BMI ≥23 and ≥ 25 Kg/m2, respectively
  2. 2. The p values were below < 0.05 when the 95% confidence interval did not include 1
  3. AOR Adjusted odds ratio, COR Crude odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, WHO World Health Organization
  4. : p < 0.05,: p < 0.01,: p < 0.001