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Table 1 Survey-weighted characteristics of Hispanic and White California children, 2001 to 2015

From: Socio-demographics and asthma prevalence, management, and outcomes among children 1–11 years of age in California

  Total  n (percent) Percent with Asthma, CI Asthma P-value  
  61,625 (100%) 12.9 (12.3, 13.4)   
Age    < 0.001 ***
   1 to 5 years 26,856 (45.2%) 9.7 (8.9, 10.4)   
   6 to 11years 34,769 (54.8%) 15.5 (14.7, 16.4)   
Gender    < 0.001 ***
   Male 31,684  (51.0%) 15.3 (14.5, 16.1)   
   Female 29,941 (49.0%) 10.4 (9.5, 11.1)   
Race/ethnicity    < 0.001 ***
   Hispanic 18,764 (42.1%) 12.4 (11.3, 13.5)   
   Asian 6,627 (10.7%) 12.9 (10.8, 14.9)   
   African American 2,801 (6.6%) 19.5 (16.8, 22.2)   
   White 29,979 (34.5%) 12.0 (11.3, 12.8)   
   Two or more Races 4,454 (6.2%) 13.7 (11.3, 16.1)   
Adult English Proficiency    < 0.001 ***
   Very well 43,953 (66/2%) 14.1 (13.2, 14.9)   
   Fairly well 6,349 (12.4%) 11.9 (9.9, 14.0)   
   Not well / Not at all 11,323 (21.4%) 9.7 (8.6, 10.8)   
Adult Education    < 0.001 ***
   Less than 12 years education 10,443 (21.4%) 11.0 (9.9, 12.1)   
   High School graduate  13,247 (22.4%) 13.4 (11.9, 14.9)   
   Less than 4 years college 14,369 (22.2%) 16.1 (14.7, 17.5)   
   College graduate or higher 23,568 (34.1%) 11.4 (10.5, 12.3)   
Poverty level    0.6217  
   0-99% FPL 10,389 (24.0%) 13.3 (11.8, 14.8)   
   100-199% FPL 12,460 (22.5%) 13.2 (11.9, 14.4)   
   200-299% FPL 8,635 (13.7%) 13.1 (11.5, 14.7)   
   300% FPL and Above 30,141 (39.8%) 12.4 (11.6, 13.2)   
Living environment    0.0680  
   Urban 50,563 (89.2%) 13.0 (12.4, 13.7)   
   Rural 11,064 (10.8%) 11.5 (10.1, 12.9)   
Usual Source of Care    0.0045 **
   Doctor office/HMO/Kaiser 45,244 (69.2%) 13.3 (12.6, 14.0)   
  Community/Government clinic 14,208 (22.7%) 12.5 (11.2, 13.7)   
   ER/Urgent care/ Other place 550 (1.0%) 12.6 (8.1, 17.1)   
   No usual source of care 1,623 (3.1%) 7.4 (5.0, 9.8)   
Insurance status    0.0222 *
   Insured 58,430 (95.1%) 13.0 (12.4, 13.6)   
   Not insured   3,195 (4.9%) 9.8 (7.3, 12.2)   
Citizenship Status    < 0.001 ***
   US-born citizen 38,019 (55.7%) 14.2 (13.3, 15.0)   
   Naturalized citizen 10,014 (17.4%) 12.2 (10.8, 13.7)   
   Non-Citizen     13,592 (26.7%) 10.6 (9.5, 11.7)   
Survey year    0.2457  
   2001-2002 11,794 (11.2%) 12.7 (12.0, 13.5)   
   2003-2004 7,863 (11.2%) 13.7 (12.7, 14.8)   
   2005-2006 10,403 (11.4%) 13.5 (12.4, 14.6)   
   2007-2008 9,134 (11.5%) 13.5 (12.4, 14.5)   
   2009-2010 8,343 (11.5%) 11.2 (10.8, 12.2)   
   2011-2012 6,879 (10.9%) 14.2 (12.7, 15.7)   
   2013 2,763 (10.7%) 13.6 (11.2, 15.9)   
   2014 2,457 (10.8%) 12.0 (9.4, 14.6)   
   2015 1,989 (10.9%) 11.5 (8.4, 14.6)   
  1. Estimated annual population of children = 5,697,515. Those with asthma = 733,320. Sample numbers are unweighted, all percents are survey-weighted
  2. CI 95% Confidence Interval
  3. * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001