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Table 4 Logistic Regression for Asthma Outcomes

From: Socio-demographics and asthma prevalence, management, and outcomes among children 1–11 years of age in California

  Had Asthma Attack In Past 12 Months Emergency Room visit in past 12 months Missed School due to Asthma in Past 12 Months
  n=5,514 n=5,339 n=6,435
Proportion 45.2% (43.0, 47.4) 30.9% (28.0, 33.8) 32.8% (30.4, 35.2)
Age
  1 to 5 years (ref.) --- --- ---
  6 to 11years 0.62 (0.51,0.74)*** 0.44 (0.33, 0.57)*** 0.79 (0.63, 0.99)*
Gender
  Male (ref.) --- --- ---
  Female 0.90 (0.76, 1.07) 1.02 (0.74, 1.43) 1.08 (0.84, 1.39)
Race/ethnicity
  Hispanic (ref.) --- --- ---
  Asian 0.94 (0.63, 1.40) 0.62 (0.36, 1.07) 0.71 (0.45, 1.12)
  African American 0.95 (0.65, 1.40) 2.10 (1.24, 3.55)** 1.55 (0.95, 2.52)
  White 1.14 (0.88, 1.49) 0.99 (0.70, 1.41) 0.75 (0.54, 1.04)
  Two or more Races 0.94 (0.62, 1.42) 0.97 (0.55, 1.72) 0.65 (0.40, 1.06)
Adult English Proficiency
  Very well (ref.) --- --- ---
  Fairly well 0.86 (0.60, 1.24) 1.92 (1.03, 3.61)* 1.73 (1.01, 2.94)*
  Not well / Not at all 0.74 (0.51, 1.07) 0.89 (0.51, 1.55) 1.08 (0.69, 1.70)
Adult Education
  Less than 12 years (ref.) --- --- ---
  High school graduate 1.16 (0.83, 1.64) 1.30 (0.73, 2.28) 0.90 (0.61, 1.34)
  Some college 1.42 (1.01, 1.98)* 1.52 (0.91, 2.53) 0.83 (0.56, 1.23)
  College graduate or higher 1.33 (0.93, 1.90) 1.06 (0.62, 1.78) 0.71 (0.46, 1.08)
Poverty level
  0-99% FPL  (ref.) --- --- ---
  100-199% FPL 1.04 (0.80, 1.34) 0.84 (0.48, 1.46) 1.07 (0.71, 1.60)
  200-299% FPL 1.18 (0.83, 1.68) 0.79 (0.45, 1.38) 1.32 (0.79, 2.21)
  300% FPL and Above 1.18 (0.88, 1.59) 0.86 (0.55, 1.33) 1.07 (0.71, 1.64)
Living environment
  Urban (ref.) --- --- ---
  Rural 1.24 (0.97, 1.58) 1.38 (0.92, 2.07) 1.04 (0.75, 1.44)
Usual Source of Care
  Office/HMO/Kaiser (ref.) --- --- ---
  Government clinic / Community hospital 0.86 (0.71, 1.06) 0.98 (0.67, 1.44) 0.91 (0.68, 1.21)
  ER/Urgent care/ Other 0.39 (0.19, 0.78)** 2.80 (1.27, 6.17)* 0.69 (0.30, 1.57)
  No usual source of care 0.60 (0.32, 1.12) 1.16 (0.41, 3.22) 0.66 (0.27, 1.62)
Insurance status
Insured (ref.) --- --- ---
Not insured 0.83 (0.51, 1.36) 0.64 (0.38, 1.06) 0.88 (0.41, 1.88)
Citizenship Status
  US-born citizen (ref.) --- --- ---
  Naturalized citizen 1.16 (0.84, 1.60) 1.08 (0.70, 1.73) 0.88 (0.60, 1.31)
  Non-Citizen  0.91 (0.65, 1.26) 1.22 (0.73, 2.05) 0.82 (0.53, 1.27)
Survey year
  2001-2002 N/A N/A N/A
  2003-2004 REF N/A REF
  2005-2006 1.06 (0.86, 1.32) REF 1.14 (0.91, 1.43)
  2007-2008 0.91 (0.71, 1.16) 0.75 (0.58, 0.98)* 1.05 (0.81, 1.35)
  2009-2010 0.93 (0.72, 1.19) 0.56 (0.42, 0.73)*** 1.14 (0.87, 1.50)
  2011-2012 0.91 (0.66, 1.25) 0.99 (0.70, 1.39) 1.05 (0.77, 1.44)
  2013 N/A 0.70 (0.44, 1.13) 1.38 (0.84, 2.26)
  2014 N/A 0.36 (0.19, 0.65)** 0.97 (0.61, 1.52)
  2015 N/A 0.98 (0.48, 2.01) 1.35 (0.79, 2.31)
  1. N/A Not available (question not asked during survey year)
  2. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001