Skip to main content

Table 1 Zoonotic diseases of concern in humanitarian emergencies and displacement (identified in the literature reviewed), disease data from: WHO communicable disease control in emergencies, A field manual [28]

From: Identifying the research gap of zoonotic disease in displacement: a systematic review

Zoonoses Symptoms in humans Transmission Main risk factors Geographical locations
Contamination and direct transmission
 Salmonellosis (caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella) acute abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, fever, and sometimes vomiting contaminated water and food, livestock products, contact with infected animals living conditions: lack of hygiene, especially of food Asia [16], Bangladesh [27], Indonesia [17, 18], Syria [28], EU [5, 29], Italy [29], US [18, 30], Haiti [15].
 Foodborne infections (caused by E. coli), respiratory illness, pneumonia diarrhea, vomiting, fever, respiratory disease symptoms contaminated water and food, livestock products, contact with infected animals living conditions: lack of hygiene, especially of food Bangladesh [18, 27, 31, 32], Thailand [16], Syria [28], EU [29], Denmark [29], US [30], Haiti [15].
 Hepatitis E yellow skin, secretions, tiredness, fever, vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite; liver failure, death during pregnancy human sewage contaminated food and water; eating undercooked pig meat living conditions: lack of hygiene Sub-Saharan Africa [16], Ethiopia [14], Kenya [14], Somalia [14], Sudan [27, 32,33,34,35,36], South Sudan [34], Asia [16], Bangladesh [31], India [32], Nepal [37], Pakistan [17, 18, 22, 37], Indonesia [17, 18], Thailand [38], Turkey [29]
 Leptospirosis fever, headache, nausea, loss of appetite, jaundice, swollen limbs, chest pain, shortness of breath, coughing blood contaminated soil and water, animal urine injuries, skin lesions; occupational exposure Southeast Asia [38], Philippines [27], Thailand [17, 38], China [17], India [17, 18, 32], Nepal [37], Pakistan [22], Taiwan [17, 18], Puerto Rico [16], Central and South America [39] Argentina [18], Brazil [18], Nicaragua [39], Caribbean [24], Haiti [15, 39], Austria [29], Bulgaria [29], Germany [29], France [29], Russia [29].
 Bovine tuberculosis weakness, loss of appetite, weight loss, fluctuating fever, intermittent cough, diarrhoea, large prominent lymph nodes eating or drinking contaminated, unpasteurized dairy products
direct contact with infected animals or contaminated tissues during slaughter
animal husbandry; living conditions; occupational exposure; wildlife reservoirs Africa [40], Nigeria [12].
 Brucellosis fluctuating fever, body ache, weight loss, weakness, abdonimal pain contact with aborted foetuses, vaginal fluids, placentae, placental fluids, urine, semen, feces and hygroma fluids
fomites, milk
occupational exposure; ingesting unpasteurised dairy products Africa [40], Algeria [41], Nigeria [12], Tanzania [2], Somalia [42], Mongolia [2], Nepal [37], Syria [28].
 Rabies rapidly progessive fatal encephalitis, preceded by generalised arousal or hyperexcitability and hydrophobia; progressive lower motor neuron weakness, paralysis animal bites (especially dogs) free roaming dogs; wildlife, rarely pets Africa [3, 40], Algeria [41], Chad [6], Malawi [2], Niger [6], Indonesia [24], Myanmar [6], Nepal [37], Thailand [38], Syria [28], Cuba [24], Haiti [15, 39].
 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS fever, cough, shortness of breath, pneumonia, gastrointestinal symptoms, diarrhoea; respiratory failure transmission in unprotected healthcare settings; dromedary contact, undercooked meat lack of quality healthcare Eastern Meditteranean Region [43, 44], Middle East [45].
 Lassa Hemorrhagic Fever fever, malaise, headache, sore throat, muscle pain, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cough, abdominal pain; bleeding, low blood pressure and death contaminated food or other items by infected rats; transmission in unprotected healthcare settings living conditions, lack of hygiene; lack of quality healthcare Africa [25], West Africa [5, 36, 46], Guinea [3], Liberia, Sierra Leone [3, 36].
 Ebola Virus Disease fever, fatigue, muscle pain, headache, sore throat, vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function; internal and external bleeding, low white blood cell and platelet counts, elevated liver enzymes human to human bodily fluids contact; close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals living conditions and poor hygiene, lack of quality healthcare, pregnancy, lactation, burial practices Africa [6, 7, 25], West Africa [5, 29, 43, 45, 47, 48], Gabon [30], Guinea [43], Ivory Coast [25], Liberia [25, 43], Sierra Leone [43], DRC [25, 36, 49], Sudan [25].
 Endo-parasites, including Opistorchis, Echinostoma, Strongyloides, Taenia, Sarcocystis, hookworm [42], Giardia, Ascaris, Trichuris, Echinococcus [44]. failure to thrive, skin bumps, rashes, weight loss, increased appetite, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting, sleeping problems, anaemia, aches and pains, allergies, weakness, malaise, fever contaminated food and water, bites, contaminated soil high population density, poor sanitation Angola, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, DRC, Equaltorial Guinea, Gabon, Liberia, South Sudan [6], Eastern Africa [40], Ethiopia [50], Eritrea, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Afghanistan, China, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Papua New Guinea, Thailand [6, 38], Kiribati, Marschall Islands, Guatemala, Peru, Jamaica [6].
 Leishmaniasis cutaneous leishmaniasis: skin lesions, nodules, or papules; visceral leishmaniasis: fever, weight loss, enlargement of the spleen and liver - untreated typically fatal Leishmania parasite through bite of female phlebotomine sand fly which feed on blood; 70 animal species are natural reservoir hosts, including humans lack of vector control; environmental changes, and urbanization; malnutrition, population displacement, poor housing/ sanitation, health status, poverty Ethiopia [50], South Sudan [51, 52], Sudan [53,54,55], Northern Africa Middle East, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Saudi Arabia [56], Syria [28, 43, 56, 57], Tunisia, Turkey, Yemen [6], Afghanistan [54, 56], Pakistan [22, 56, 58], Nepal [37], Brazil [52], Colombia, Venezuela [54, 59].
 Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) fever, myalgia, dizziness, neck pain, stiffness, backache, headache, sore eyes and photophobia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, sore throat; mood swings, confusion; sleepiness, depression lassitude, liver enlargement, tachycardia, lymphadenopathy, petechial rash; hepatitis, liver failure tick bites, contact with infected livestock occupational exposure; population movement Africa, Asia, Europe, Middle East [60], Eastern Mediterranean Region [43], Turkey [28, 60], Afghanistan, Iran [44], Pakistan [61, 62].
 Rift Valley Fever (RVF) range from mild flu-like illness to severe lethal haemorrhagic fever contact with blood or organs of infected livestock; mosquito bites; unpasteurized milk occupational exposure; lack of vector control Africa [40, 60, 63], Egypt [63], Kenya [24, 45, 63], Somalia [59, 63], Sudan [63], Tanzania [59], Eastern Mediterranean Region [43], Asia [60].