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Table 2 Knowledge and practices on ANC, pregnancy, delivery and PNC

From: Health problems and utilization of health services among Forcibly Displaced Myanmar Nationals in Bangladesh

ANC, pregnancy and PNC care FDMN in makeshift settlement
n (%)
FDMN in host community
n (%)
Host community
n (%)
Total
n (%)
P value
Knowledge on required ANC visits in one pregnancy
2 ANC visits 8 (1.9) 9 (2.5) 3 (1.4) 20 (2) < 0.001
3 ANC visits 119 (27.8) 153 (42.9) 116 (54.2) 388 (38.8)  
4 and more ANC visits 246 (57.5) 92 (25.8) 67 (31.3) 405 (40.5)  
Don’t know 55 (12.9) 103 (28.9) 28 (13.1) 186 (18.6)  
Episodes of ANC visits received in last pregnancy
Did not do ANC visit 51 (11.9) 187 (52.4) 51 (23.8) 289 (28.9) < 0.001
One ANC visit 25 (5.8) 47 (13.2) 27 (12.6) 99 (9.9)  
2 ANC visits 34 (7.9) 37 (10.4) 36 (16.8) 107 (10.7)  
3 ANC visits 148 (34.6) 69 (19.3) 75 (35.0) 292 (29.2)  
4 or more ANC visits 170 (39.7) 17 (4.8) 25 (11.7) 212 (21.2)  
Common places where ANC service was received
Government health facility 41 (10.9) 74 (44) 54 (33.1) 169 (23.9) < 0.001
NGO run clinic 329 (87.5) 99 (58.9) 88 (54) 516 (73)  
Private health facility 27 (7.2) 12 (7.1) 36 (22.1) 75 (10.6)  
Person seen for last ANC visit      
Trained health personnela 349 (92.6) 162 (95.3) 149 (91.4) 660 (93) 0.003
Non-trained personnelb 70 (18.6) 11 (6.5) 27 (16.6) 108 (15.2)  
Number of TT vaccine during last pregnancy
TT vaccine given 336 (78.5) 291 (81.5) 193 (90.2) 820 (82.1) 0.001
Mean numbers 2 3 2 2  
Knowledge about danger signs of pregnancyc
Not known at all 48 (11.2) 60 (16.8) 20 (9.3) 128 (12.8) 0.028
At least two danger signs 203 (47.4) 176 (49.3) 105 (49.1) 484 (48.4)  
Known at least three or more danger signs 177 (41.4) 121 (33.9) 89 (41.6) 387 (38.7)  
Suffered any complications during last pregnancy/birth
Yes, suffered complicationsd 124 (29.0) 87 (24.4) 81 (37.9) 292 (29.2) 0.003
No, did not suffer complications 304 (71.0) 270 (75.6) 133 (62.1) 707 (70.8)  
Health facility visited for complications management
Government health facility 23 (19) 17 (20.7) 19 (24.1) 59 (20.9) < 0.001
NGO run clinic 84 (69.4) 31 (37.8) 18 (22.8) 133 (47.2)  
Private health facility 14 (11.6) 34 (41.5) 42 (53.2) 90 (31.9)  
Place of last birth      
Home 326 (76.2) 344 (96.4) 181 (84.6) 851 (85.2) < 0.001
Government health facility 15 (3.5) 6 (1.7) 19 (8.9) 40 (4)  
NGO Clinic 83 (19.4) 3 (0.8) 8 (3.7) 94 (9.4)  
Private health facility 4 (0.9) 4 (1.1) 6 (2.8) 14 (1.4)  
Person assisted for delivery at health facility
Trained health personnel 169 (75.4) 27 (30) 39 (38.6) 235 (56.6) < 0.001
Non-trained personnel 85 (37.9) 64 (71.1) 63 (62.4) 212 (51.1)  
Trained health personnel 169 (75.4) 27 (30) 39 (38.6) 235 (56.6)  
Number of last PNC visits
1 PNC visit 60 (26.8) 32 (35.6) 36 (35.6) 128 (30.8) 0.362
2 PNC visits 79 (35.3) 26 (28.9) 28 (27.7) 133 (32)  
3 PNC visits 53 (23.7) 22 (24.4) 19 (18.8) 94 (22.7)  
4 or more PNC visits 32 (14.3) 10 (11.1) 18 (17.8) 60 (14.5)  
Places for PNC check-up
Government health facility 15 (6.9) 9 (10.7) 18 (18.6) 42 (10.6) < 0.001
NGO run clinic 169 (77.9) 21 (25) 13 (13.4) 203 (51)  
Private health facility 33 (15.2) 54 (64.3) 66 (68) 153 (38.4)  
  1. aMedical doctor, Nurse/midwife/paramedic, Family welfare visitor, Community skilled birth attendant, Medical Assistant/SACMO, Health Assistant, Family welfare assistant
  2. bTraditional birth attendant, unqualified doctor, NGO worker
  3. cDanger signs of pregnancy (per vaginal bleeding, severe headache, leaking of fluid from the vagina, Abdominal pain, sudden blur vision, high fever, convulsion, prolonged labor)
  4. dComplications during the last pregnancy/birth: convulsion, difficulty in breathing/fast breathing, infection of umbilical stump, unable to suck or difficulty in feeding, low/high body temperature, lathery