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Table 5 Determinants of informal payments using the Tobit regression model

From: Informal payments in public hospitals in Malawi: the case of Kamuzu Central Hospital

Characteristics Informal payment in cash initiated by the client Informal payment in cash initiated by the health care worker
Variables β (SE) β (SE)
Gender (Ref: Female)     
Male  − 8624.096* 1633.17  − 3705.45 1861.90
Marital status (Ref: married)     
Divorced/separated 3863.07 3199.02 5350.42 3919.59
Widowed 14,084.74 8872.56
Never married 645.23 2538.07  − 1153.66 2837.98
Age group (Ref: 18 to 25 years)     
Above 25 to 35 years 1022.65 3304.85 1140.85 3761.68
Above 35 to 45 years 429.59 3373.28 – 175.33 3854.58
Above 45 to 55 years 7391.60 3670.62 6861.87 4159.00
Above 55 years 7010.35 3908.23 9006.57 4989.25
Occupation (Ref: formal employment)     
Self-employed  − 4943.29* 1819.99  − 5908.32* 2030.74
Not employed  − 4686.75* 2188.09  − 4798.52 2679.21
  1. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001