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Table 1 Summary of selected characteristics of the 210 included studies

From: The military as a neglected pathogen transmitter, from the nineteenth century to COVID-19: a systematic review

Characteristic No. (%)
Year of publication
1800–1820 1 (0.5)
1821–1840 0 (0)
1841–1860 1 (0.5)
1861–1880 0 (0)
1881–1900 0 (0)
1901–1920 2 (1)
1921–1940 1 (0.5)
1941–1960 7 (3)
1961–1980 14 (7)
1981–2000 33 (16)
2001–2020 151 (72)
Populations
Military 173 (82)
Military and civilian 34 (16)
Civilian 2 (1)
Unspecified 1 (0.5)
Military type
Army 89 (42)
Training base 51 (24)
Navy 30 (14)
Air Force 20 (10)
Marine Corps 19 (9)
Hospital 6 (3)
Academic institution 6 (3)
Medical Corps 2 (1)
Coast Guard 0 (0)
Unspecified 35 (17)
Method of data collection
Laboratory testing 156 (74)
Questionnaire 112 (53)
Interview 60 (29)
Medical record review 48 (23)
Environmental sampling (food or water sources) 28 (13)
Observations (i.e., physical examination) 14 (7)
Focus group 2 (1)
Participant journal/diary 1 (0.5)
Type of infectious disease
Foodborne/waterborne 84 (40)
Droplets 73 (35)
Sexually transmitted and bloodborne infections 30 (14)
Vector borne 29 (14)
Airborne 15 (7)
Close contact1 11 (5)
Unspecified 2 (0.9)
Disease incidence2
Confirmed3 incidence from microbiological testing 136 (65)
Suspected4 incidence only 27 (13)
Incidence not reported 47 (22)
Disease transmission populations
Military to military 183 (87)
Military to civilian 25 (12)
Civilian to military 25 (12)
Vector to military 15 (7)
Civilian to civilian 3 (1)
Vector to civilian 2 (1)
Military to vector to military 1 (0.5)
Unspecified 6 (3)
  1. 1Refers to infections that spread through sustained close contact rather than through casual contact (i.e., cold/flu microbes)
  2. 2Reported incidence is likely not the true incidence as many authors included only patient participants or did not include data for participants lost to follow-up
  3. 3Methods of confirmation of disease include: (a) isolation of pathogen from normally sterile site, (b) using a plaque reduction neutralization test, (c) using a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, (d) serologically positive for infection as per specific antibody testing
  4. 4Refers to symptoms of disease without microbiological testing